Why is football seen as a universal sport

The professionalization in German football - from the beginnings to the 1970s


1. Introduction and structure of the work
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Structure of the thesis

2. On the term "profession"
2.1 Real definition of "professional", "professional" and "professionalization"
2.2 The concept of professionalization and its application for processes in professional football
2.3 The concept of "commercialization"

3. The history of football up to the emergence of modern football

4. The emergence of modern football and the development of professionalism
4.1 England and football at the "public schools"
4.1.2 The idea of ​​the "gentleman amateur" and the "fair play" ideology
4.2 Spread of modern football on the European continent
4.3 Dissemination in Germany and dealing with the gymnastics community
4.4 Early professionalization tendencies and emergence of the "football industry"
4.4.1 The early interest of business in professional football
4.4.2 Early cooperation between professional football and the media

5. Development of professionalization in Germany up to the establishment of the 1st Bundesliga
5.1 The emergence and shaping of the amateur ideal in Germany
5.2 Foundation and consolidation of the DFB
5.3 Amateurism versus professional football
5.3.1 Sham amateurism and "stab in the back against Schalke"
5.4 The resumption of the professional player discussion after the end of World War II
5.5 Semi-professional football under the Contract Players Statute 1948-1963

6. Development of professionalization after the introduction of the Bundesliga in 1963
6.1 Late insight: the necessity of a Bundesliga and its decision
6.1.1 The Bundesliga committee: Bundesliga statutes and selection process
6.2 Effects of the Bundesliga statute on the development of professionalization
6.2.1 The Hertha BSC Berlin - Tasmania Berlin case
6.3 The Bundesliga scandal in 1971 and its causes and effects
6.4 The advancement of commercialization in professional football
6.4.1 TV money
6.4.2 Perimeter advertising
6.4.3 Shirt Advertising
6.5 The introduction of the 2nd Bundesliga in 1974
6.5.1 The single-track 2nd Bundesliga 1980/81

7. Summary and Outlook

8. Bibliography

1. Introduction and structure of the work

1.1 Introduction

With Uli Hoeness, the manager of the F.C. Bayern Munich, was voted “Entrepreneur of the Year” for the first time in 1999 on an exponent from the world of sport. The fact that this honor was received positively not only in the world of football but in the entire world of sports is indicative of the position of football at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The connection between football and business, which is taken for granted by the public today, is based on a development of professionalization and commercialization in football that has lasted for over a century. The development of this connection was characterized by mutual influence, but also by the rejection of this connection by representatives of football. Professional football, which emerged from amateur football, met with rejection for a long time, especially among the bourgeoisie. German football, in particular, has long been burdened with an ideological charge of this discussion when it comes to professionalization.

The professionalization and at the same time commercialization of football has been a constant topic in sport-political discussions for over a century. The roots of both professionalization and the discussion about it lie in Great Britain at the end of the 19th century, but can also be found with a time lag in Germany and other European countries. When English football left the elite circles of the “public schools” and became a real magnet and spectacle for large parts of the population, business-minded club officials began collecting entry fees very early on and establishing connections with business and the press. The step of paying the players was only a matter of time from that point on. From the beginning, however, the professionalization of football encountered bitter resistance from the “gentleman amateurs”. As will be shown in the course of this work, attempts by academic and civil circles to prevent the institutionalization of professional football have not been crowned with success.

The clashes were repeated on the continent, especially in the interwar period. The resistance to professional football can be seen in the context of an intellectual current that was spreading across Europe during those years. Large sections of the elite got excited about expanding “mass cultures” and saw “Americanism”, which also manifested itself through professional sport, as a threat to the continent's cultural heritage and projected almost apocalyptic visions of stupid and brutalized city dwellers.

In Germany in particular, the representatives of amateurism were "overwhelmed by the normative force of the factual" at the beginning of the 1930s.[1]. However, the development of professional football was abruptly stopped by the global economic crisis and its political consequences, as well as by the subsequent World War, and especially in Germany it was delayed until the 1960s.

Professionalization in sport has become a central issue today when it comes to the self-image of sport and its function in highly developed societies. This applies to recreational sports as well as high-performance sports. Recreational sport is enjoying increasing popularity, which also leads to a professionalization of the organizational structures in this area. The main providers in this field are the sports clubs. These had to become more professional in their offer in order to meet the large number and the changed expectations of the athletes and those interested in sports. At the same time, commercial providers emerged who, for a fee, offered non-organized athletes professional organizational framework conditions for exercising sport.

Today, the professionalization of high-performance sport is not only understood as the professionalization of the athlete, but also as the professionalization of the organizational forms in which the sporting processes take place.

As will be tried to show in the following, in the discussion about professional football and the professionalization of sport in general, the most diverse interests and ideologies are bundled and make this discussion a reflection of the cultural currents, the social and economic processes and the political views, against the background of which they each played out. This applies to the end of the 19th century as well as to the inter and post-war period - and also to the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century.

The "phenomenon of developing sport or professional football and its appearance in the increasing process of professionalization of activities and services within industrialized societies with increasing leisure time"[2] will be examined below. In the second part of the work in particular, the German Football Association is heavily involved in considering the development of professionalization in football, as this acted as a braking factor in the development of professionalization from the very beginning. In addition, the temporary backwardness in the area of ​​professionalization of the organizational structures can be seen in him.

The period covered ends at the beginning of the 1980s, since from this point in time a new era in the field of professionalization and, above all, commercialization broke in with the privatization of television in Germany.

1.2 Structure of the thesis

The investigation of the development of professionalization in German football begins with the definition of the terms “professionalization” and “commercialization”. On the basis of existing definitions for the two terms, further definitions will be worked out which can be used meaningfully for the examined topic.

The thesis examines which stages of development professionalization in football went through and which factors promoted or inhibited this development. Since the process of professionalization in football cannot be viewed in isolation from the developments in other European countries, especially in English football, the development of professionalization in English football will be considered in the first part of the thesis. Since English football played a pioneering role not only in its development as a game but also in the development of professionalism in football, these processes can be viewed as a paradigm because they took place with a time delay under similar conditions and with similar consequences in the rest of football in Europe.

First of all, however, the prehistory of football up to the emergence of modern football will be considered. This chapter examines the early ball games of antiquity, the Italian Calcio games in the late Middle Ages and the predecessors of football in the early modern period to see whether they already had a tendency towards professionalism.

The development of modern football and the development of professionalism with a focus on England are then dealt with. For this purpose, the development of modern football at the “public schools” as well as the idea of ​​the “gentleman amateur” and the “fair play” ideology that emerged there are analyzed. Then the spread of modern football on the European continent in general and in Germany in particular is observed. Finally, this chapter shows the connection between early professionalization tendencies and the interest of business in professional football as well as the early cooperation between professionalized football and the press.

The penultimate chapter focuses on the development of professionalization in Germany up to the establishment of the 1st Bundesliga. To this end, the development and development of the amateur ideal in Germany and the establishment and consolidation of the German Football Association are examined. The discussion in Germany about professional football or pure amateurism is exemplified by the case of Schalke 04 and its sanctions for sham amateurism by the DFB in the 1930s. This chapter closes with the consideration of the resumption of the professional player discussion after the end of World War II and of semi-professional football under the contract player statute in the years 1948-1963.

The last chapter focuses on the development of professionalization in Germany after the introduction of the 1st Bundesliga in 1963. This will be done by examining the Bundesliga statute and its effects on the development of professionalization. Here, too, there is an exemplary consideration of the effects on the Hertha BSC Berlin club. Finally, the Bundesliga scandal of 1971 and its causes and effects are examined and the progress of commercialization in professional football through television money, jersey advertising and perimeter advertising is shown. It concludes with a brief mention of the introduction of the 2nd Bundesliga and its further development into the single-track 2nd division for the 1980/81 season.

2. On the term "profession"

2.1 Real definition of "professional", "professional" and "professionalization"

The word "Profession" has been used in the German-speaking area since the 16th century. In etymological dictionaries it is unanimously regarded as a derivation from the Latin word "professio". In German usage, the word was adopted via its French predecessor “profession”.[3]

In a dictionary by the Brothers Grimm from 1889, the word content is characterized according to two definitions. The first definition is based on the Latin meaning of the word and meant: "public vow, religious vow, professorship". This meaning, which was no longer in use at the time, became the more up-to-date word content: "Any profession that you publicly commit to, preferably a trade or craft"[4] attached. The following “professions” are named: theologian, comedian, player, traveler, pastor, lawyer, personal physician, scholar, shepherd, mechanic, basket maker, writer.

In MEYERS Konversations-Lexikon of 1896 "Profession" is defined as follows:

“Profession” (lat.), In general any profession to which one “professes”, regardless of whether it relates to physical or mental activity (hence earlier also as much as professorship); but preferably a trade or craft; hence a professional, as much as a craftsman. P. make something, make something his main business or livelihood. "[5]

In the Universal Lexicon by J.H. Zedler[6] From the year 1741 the word “profession” is divided into three parts: On the one hand there is the profession, which “if you look at it according to its nature and in itself”, it depends on “mere science”. This included "all parts of learning". Next, mostly craftsmen for whom “it is almost all about a finished exercise” and, as a third group, those who are “designed for exercise and science at the same time”. This included everything that is called “an art”.

According to H.A. Hesse, these sources mean that “profession is not the function of work aimed at reproduction ...; not the socio-cultural evaluation of work that secures the willingness to work; it is recorded by profession, thinks. Profession means work as a social institution, as a behavior pattern, in its outward appearance "[7].

On the one hand, the word "profession" served for a long time in German usage, as suggested by Hesse, to describe the profession as a "systematically organized social institution"[8] and on the other hand it has become a term for the trades.

In the “Großer Duden”, the term “profession” is still defined as “profession, trade” in 1963.[9] The same definition is also used in 1978 by the “Lexicon of Sociology”, with the additional meaning “professional group, class” as an addition and a further definition as “a service occupation relevant to society with high prestige and income, which is highly specialized and systematized, only applies technical and / or institutional knowledge that can be acquired in the course of a long training relatively autonomously and in a collective manner - such as a doctor and judge.[10]

In G. Hartfiel's "Dictionary of Sociology", the term "Profession" includes all liberal professions such as doctor, lawyer, architect, auditor or tax consultant, which are in contrast to agricultural, industrial or commercial professions and professions in theoretical science and art, subsumed[11].

In the following, a real definition of the terms “professional”, “professional” and “professionalism” is to be undertaken, in addition to the definitions listed above, by presenting the meaning of the terms in colloquial use.

Professionalization in the broader sense means the development of a private or voluntary activity into a profession (corresponds to: professionalization). In a narrower sense, professionalization means the development of a profession into a profession. A profession is considered to be an academic profession with high prestige, which is practiced primarily because of the challenge inherent in the task. The profession is differentiated from the job (temporary activity, exclusively for earning money) and the profession, which is supposed to secure the livelihood in the long term.

The relevant definitions in the relevant reference works largely agree conceptually in that “professional” or “professional” is consistently referred to as “professional, commercial, performing an activity as a profession”. "Furthermore, a qualitative aspect is pointed out: something that is" professional "has a certain high quality, it is professional"[12]. Persons designated as “professionals”, or in the short forms “professional” or “pro”, are professional athletes, professional players, but also professional artists, specialists or intellectual workers. A certain degree of specialization is predominantly associated with this designation. The work or execution of a “professional” is in contrast to that of amateurs or even amateurs.

The 1978 Random House Dictionary names the “professional”: “A person who belongs to one of the professions; a person who earns his or her living in a sport or other occupation frequently engaged in by amateurs, a person who is expert at his or her work ".[13]

G. Hortleder understands “professionalism” as a “scientific description of the term professional sport known from everyday language”.Professional sport is the "sport primarily practiced under commercial conditions in capitalist societies, especially pure professional sport."[14] In the sense of this definition, the term professionalization is used in the following work.

In the foreign dictionary of the Dudens "professionalism" is paraphrased as the "practice of professional sport".[15] In summary, it can be said that on the colloquial level of the real definition, the terms mentioned have a relatively clear assignment to sport that is becoming more professional, i.e. professional sport.

Nevertheless, the understanding of the terms remains a bit abstract and development processes are usually not included in the definitions given. They are not very differentiated and are based on the final or target state of the professional footballer or professional athlete.

2.2 The concept of professionalization and its application for processes in professional football

As described in the previous chapter, the term “profession” in sociology is often filled with different content, "which is justified in the different views of the respective professional sociologists and the ideological vulnerability of the profession as a special development stage of the profession"[16]. For this reason, it seems problematic to work with the term “profession” in the stated field of investigation.

It is more appropriate to work with the term “professionalization”. This is because a dynamic developmental characteristic is assigned to this and, in relation to the professional field of the footballer, can be used to designate processes that serve the professional construction within the entire professional world. This process is not completed at a certain target stage, but is constantly evolving in a changed form. However, these developments can be interrupted in a certain state for a certain period of time or permanently terminated, which is essentially dependent on the societal, social, political and organizational framework conditions.

The process of further development of professional football was slowed down or almost completely stopped by various social, political and organizational framework conditions.

In Germany, for example, the confrontation with the gymnastics community and large parts of the bourgeoisie, as well as the prohibition of profitability under National Socialism and internal resistance, led to the slowdown in development.

When examining the professionalization tendencies, it is therefore necessary to look at the beginning so far that a development phase in the process of professionalization can be recognized in every form of professional construction. The professionalization tendencies in professional football in particular or in high-performance sport in general are shown by "the submission of the sport or athlete to the requirements and laws of profession and market"[17] and are different in their form and development phase.

The term “professionalization” is used here as an extension of the socio-historical professionalization concept, which includes the emergence of “expert professions”, which usually require academic knowledge, for the genesis of a non-academic profession.[18]

The early English professional footballers of modern football perceived their football not only as a profession, but even more differentiated themselves as workers. (Which, from today's point of view, certainly fits with the self-image of physically-toned English football.)

The first footballers' union was founded as early as 1899, but it enjoyed only a small number of people. In 1907 the “Professional Footballer's Association” (PFA) was established in Manchester. The backbone of this union was formed by the Manchester United players around star Billy Meredith, who came from a South Wales mining village. Central demands of the union were the abolition of the upper salary limits and the free choice of the job made impossible by the transfer system. The PFA joined the General Federation of Trade Unions, demonstrating that the unionized players viewed football as an industry and themselves as workers.[19]

How the "professionalization" or professionalization of football came about and which development tendencies occurred in a historical context will be examined in the following work. In addition to the central step of “professionalization” of the active athlete, professionalization also means specialization, e.g. through fixed playing positions and assignment on the field, market creation, e.g. by English brewers or the press, market control, e.g. by buying players for sporting quality and thus at the same time Maintaining financial security and regulating competition through the amalgamation of various interest groups such as player and league representatives.

Looking at the development of professionalism in football also requires an examination of the organizational structures that define the institutional framework. Because the organizations and their structures are also subject to a constant development of professionalization and only professional forms of organization can guarantee relative continuity.

2.3 The concept of "commercialization"

As will become apparent in the course of the work, the development of professionalization in football always includes the development of commercialization in football. In some areas, the two cannot be separated from each other.

The term commercialization is rarely used in the languages ​​of the various scientific disciplines and has therefore rarely been defined. In economic theory, too, which reflects models and terms on real economic processes, the term “commercialization” is hardly ever used.[20] The few definitions presented so far will now be briefly considered and on this basis a definition useful for our topic will be attempted.

The Latin word "commercium" refers to trade, commerce, business transactions and, in the narrower sense, to commercial activity.[21] In the field of economics, the term “commercialization” was used at times to describe the conversion of public or government debt into private debt, as was the case with the Young bonds after the First World War.[22] This restricted use of the term shows little reference to the word origin and has little to do with the questions that are the focus of this work.

The origin of the term in sociology and in some studies by sports sociologists dealing with the economization of sport is more clearly recognizable. For Klaus Heinemann, in his considerations on commercialization in sport, the term means “that the market as an exchange mechanism within sport and with other systems - such as sport and the economy - is gaining increasing importance, that is, benefit flows are no longer voluntary, based on reciprocal obligations or public Provided well, rather than being negotiated as a service and consideration with the aim of realizing individual interests, therefore also means the increasing conversion of public goods or voluntary services into marketable goods. Markets are emerging in which, for example, sport is sold for an entrance fee, as a concession or property right, and athletic ability as a professional achievement. "[23] This sport-specific definition by Heinemann represents commercialization both from the perspective of an organization and from the perspective of an internal systematic process and thus offers good approaches to the commercialization process (or professionalization process) as an interaction process between mass media and sport or business and sport in the subject examined here analyze.

The definitions given above, on the other hand, do not point to the causes of the commercialization of sport. References to the constant scarcity of financial resources on the part of sport or references to attempts to develop new advertising strategies on the part of business can explain why intersystematic relationships develop between business and sport, but the conditions for the success of the endeavors cannot be captured. Furthermore, it is hardly recognizable in these definitions that commercialization is based on an increase in service orientation and that such orientations are also becoming important for members in voluntary associations of sport.[24] In his treatise on commercialization in high-performance sport, Peter Wuttke understands the term commercialization as “a change in the resource structure of voluntary organization of sport, which is increasingly replacing the club-internal mechanisms of resource procurement with mechanisms that contribute to the resources of the voluntary association via the market to organize. [...] This process is based on the sensitivity of large parts of the population in advanced industrial societies, which are open to physical concerns. "[25]

For our later investigation of the development of professionalization in the Bundesliga, three aspects are of primary importance in the course of the commercialization of Bundesliga football. On the one hand, the market opportunities for football talent have resulted in a tendency towards professionalization among athletes and thus an increase in the importance of paid skilled workers in the administration and management of clubs. Furthermore, the sale of certain usage rights, which the Bundesliga clubs acquire through participation in the league games, plays a major role in the commercialization process. In addition, the media, the advertising industry and the Bundesliga clubs themselves have a great interest in an attractive presentation of the football games and are therefore considering whether to secure or increase this attractiveness.

3. The prehistory of football to the emergence of modern football

England is without a doubt the birthplace of modern football as we know and play it today. It was not without pride that English fans chanted “football's coming home” at the 1996 European Championship and the English organizers also let this slogan be carried out into the world as their motto in large letters.

No precise statements can be made about the origin of the first ball games, which could be compared with football, in contrast to the development of modern football in England.

Since a ball is not a good object for archaeological excavations due to its low durability, ball games, also because they were considered commonplace and taken for granted, were rarely a preferred topic for chroniclers, historians or archaeologists.

The earliest forms of ball games known today were played in Asia.

Already in the second millennium BC A ball game was played in China called "Ts'uh-küh". The name was made up of the word characters "ts'uh" = "kick with your foot" and "küh" = "ball". The "Northern Barbarians", the Hiung-nu or Huns, are repeatedly named as the masters of this game, the rules of which are not known. The fact that the Huns were the first football players would also coincide with the spread of the "Ts'uh-küh" in China, which was mainly played in the north of the Chinese Empire.[26] In contrast to other ancient sports and ball games, nothing indicates that this game had a cultic background.

Ts'uh-küh was deliberately used to train and train soldiers and, at the beginning, only played by them. Above all, it was intended to promote physical fitness by teaching quick reactions, discipline, tactical behavior and team spirit.[27]

In the time of the Chou dynasty, 11th century to 249 BC. BC, "Ts'uh-küh" began to spread to large parts of the population, which resulted in stricter rules being established. It was started to play with a ball, which consisted of eight pieces of leather and was probably stuffed with feathers and animal hair. In addition, special playing fields have been prepared. The game of soccer in China peaked in popularity during the Ts'in Dynasty, 221 BC. BC to AD 618, where it became an entertainment sport and took on its first professional traits. Winning teams waved material rewards such as silver trophies and high-quality fabrics, while the losing teams received nothing. In the following years, the air-filled ball was invented in China and a 25-chapter set of rules was drawn up, according to which each team had at least ten players. There were also goals, a goalkeeper, a captain and a precisely defined training program. The reasons why such a highly developed game with a strong cultural anchorage in large parts of society could disappear is unclear in research. In any case, around the year 900 AD the game disappeared completely.[28]

At around the same time, a game called Kemari appeared in Japan, which, according to ancient Japanese legends, was introduced by Chinese "football spirits". For this reason, a connection to the Chinese Ts'uh-küh is made in some secondary literature on this topic. The Japanese Kemari, in contrast to the Chinese Ts'uh-küh, was a cultic ceremony, which was limited to the temple district as the setting and the high nobility as participants.[29] In the game (called Kemari) the goal of the four to six participants was to keep the ball in the air as long as possible, taking turns kicking it. The game should tune the gods favorably. The Japanese tradition of Kemari is still being cultivated and played by two Kemari clubs in Kyoto in the 21st century.

In the Roman Empire, the team fighting game harpastum (Greek harpaston) was widespread. Current research, however, is divided on whether the harpastum of the Romans can be regarded as the predecessor of football. The fact that it is mostly mentioned in connection with wrestling leads to the conclusion that it was more of a kind of brawl game. During their campaigns of conquest, Roman legionaries spread the game in large parts of Europe, where it combined with new game ideas in some areas. For this reason, some authors regard the Roman harpastum as a kind of original game of the English, French, Italian and German ball games that emerged in the Middle Ages.

On the American continent, in addition to numerous other ball games, the ritual ball games operated by the Mayas and Aztecs, the playing surfaces of which were discovered during excavations, represented a cultural-historical high point. In the "lacrosse", which is still widespread in the north of the continent, native American Indians were preserved Game tradition linked to a game played by the French immigrants. The indigenous people called it "Baggataway" or "Tewaraathon" which means "little brother of war" and consecrated it to the god of war.

The first mentions of a football game on the European continent date back to 1147. Known is a deed of donation of soccer balls for the popular game "houle" or "soule" at folk festivals, which had its roots in a Germanic sun cult. Mostly it was a question of games that the entire village used as a playing field or at least had their central playing points at the village church or at the city gates. In the following times, however, due to rampant tumult, the playing areas were relocated to the surrounding fields and meadows and thus the first playing fields specifically designated for soccer games - i.e. "soccer fields" - were created in Europe.

The first characteristics of modern football emerged. Medieval sources report about the French King Philip V, who had "Soule" banned in 1329, or about King Louis XI, who in 1480 addressed the ball manufacturers in Rouen in a decree about the construction of balls.[30]

In the 15th century, a football game called "giuoco del calcio" or "Calcio storico" was cultivated, especially in Italy. This game was a mixture of rugby, football, wrestling and street fights. At first, ball games were widespread among the Florentine aristocracy, who played the game in Florence on the fenced and bleached square in front of the Santa Croce church. This was characterized by tactical skill and agility and less by hard physical effort. Tents served as gates on both sides.Each team had 27 players, including 15 strikers, 5 runners and a total of 7 defenders with different tasks, one of whom was a goalkeeper and was allowed to pick up the ball. All other players were only allowed to kick or punch the ball. Playing with the flat of the hand or throwing and catching were prohibited. To ensure compliance with these rules, referees monitored the game. Eventually the game spread among citizens and students.[31]


[1] Brändle, F./Koller, C .: Goal. The cultural and social history of modern football, Zurich 2002. p.72

[2] Fischer, Harald: Sport and Business. Professionalization in sport, (Sports sociological work, vol. 10) Berlin 1986. (1st edition) p.12

[3] Fischer, Harald: Sport and business. Professionalization in sport, (Sports sociological work, Vol. 10) Berlin 1986. (1st edition) p. 6

[4] Grimm, J./W. Grimm: German Dictionary, Volume 7, arr. v. M. von Lexer, Leipzig 1889, keyword “Profession”, column 2160.

[5] Meyers Konversations-Lexikon, Volume 14, 5th completely revised edition, Leipzig / Vienna 1896, p. 256, keyword “Profession”.

[6] Cedar; J. H .: Large complete universal encyclopedia of all sciences and arts, which so far have been invented and improved through human understanding and wit, Vol. 28, Art. “Profession”, Leipzig and Halle 1741

[7] Hesse, H. A .: Professions in Transition. A contribution to the sociology of the profession, professional policy and professional law, Stuttgart 1972.

[8] Hesse, H. A .: Professions in Transition.

[9] Duden, der Große: Origin dictionary, Volume 7, Mannheim 1963, keyword “Profession”.

[10] Fuchs, W./R. Climate and others (Ed.): Lexicon for Sociology, 2nd improved and expanded edition, Opladen 1978, keyword “Profession”.

[11] Hartfiel, G .: Dictionary of Sociology, 2nd revised and supplemented edition, Stuttgart 1976, keyword "Profession" or "Freie Berufe", pp.541 and 197/198. (quoted from: Fischer, Harald: Sport und Business. p.7)

[12] Fischer, Harald: Sport and Business. P.11

[13] The Random House Dictionary, New York 1978, keywords “profession”, “professional”, “professionalism”, p.174. (quoted from: Fischer, Harald: Sport und Business. p.12)

[14] Hortleder, G .: Sport in the post-industrial society. An introduction to the sociology of sport, Frankfurt / M. 1978.

[15] Duden: foreign dictionary. 5th, revised and expanded edition. Vol. 5. Mannheim / Vienna / Zurich 1990. Keyword “professionalism”. P.636

[16] Fisherman; Harald: Sport and business. P.13

[17] Heinemann, Klaus .: Introduction to the sociology of sport. (Series “Sport and Sport Lessons” Vol. 1) Schorndorf 1980, p.42

[18] Rüschemeyer, Dietrich: Professionalization: Theoretical problems for comparative historical research. in: History and Society. Journal of Historical Social Sciences. 6 (1980) pp. 311-325.

[19] Brändle, F./Koller, C .: Goal. P.76

[20] Pöttinger, Peter: Economic and social foundations of professionalization in sport. Wiesbaden 1989. p.27

[21] Pöttinger, Peter: Basics of professionalization in sport. P.27

[22] Wuttke, Peter: Structure and Effect of the Commercialization of High-Performance Sports - An Analysis of the Bundesliga from a Systems-Theoretical Perspective. P.30

[23] Heinemann, Klaus: Sport and Economy. Problems of an economy of sport, in: Federal Center for Political Education (Hrsg.): Social functions of sport. Contributions to a symposium (series of publications by the Federal Agency for Civic Education, Vol. 206) Bonn 1984. pp. 131-148, here p. 145.

[24] Wuttke, Peter: Structure and Effect of the Commercialization of High-Performance Sports - An Analysis of the Bundesliga from a Systems Theory Perspective. P.32

[25] Wuttke, Peter: Structure and effect of the commercialization of high-performance sport. P. 32

[26] Umminger, Walter: Football in three millennia. In: Huba, Karl-Heinz (Ed.): Football world history. Munich 1992. p.22

[27] Umminger, Walter: Football in three millennia. P.23

[28] Umminger, Walter: Football world history. P.24

[29] Umminger, Walter: Football world history. P.24

[30] Eisenberg, Christiane [Hrsg.]: Fußball, soccer, calcio, an English sport on its way around the world Munich 1997 pp. 1-233

[31] Bredekamp, ​​Horst: Florentine football: The renaissance of the games, Calcio as a festival of the Medici, Frankfurt 1993. S.37

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