What is fluorine at room temperature

Fluorine is a colorless, yellow-greenish gas in higher concentrations, which smells pungent like chlorine and is extremely toxic. At room temperature it is in the form of diatomic molecules F2 in front. Fluorine is the least dense halogen, but it is still heavier than air. The gas condenses at −188.12 ° C to a yellowish liquid, which solidifies to yellow crystals below −219.67 ° C. Working with fluorine is extremely dangerous due to its toxicity and reactivity. There are only a few laboratories in Europe that can guarantee the safe handling of fluorine.


Fluorine bottles in the safety cabinet
 

 
Fluorine is stored in steel bottles and special safety cabinets.
A reaction between the fluorine and the steel creates a protective layer on the inside.


Fluorine is the most electronegative element, the most reactive element and also the strongest oxidizing agent known. It reacts with almost all substances even at low temperatures. It combines with hydrogen under the appearance of fire or explosively to form hydrogen fluoride:
H2 + F2  2 HF   ΔHR. = −542 kJ / mol
  
It decomposes with water to form hydrogen fluoride and atomic oxygen, which immediately reacts with the oxygen in the air to form ozone.
  
F.2 + H2O 2 HF + O (atomic)
O + O2  O3   
  
It reacts with most metals and non-metals and even with chlorine, bromine and iodine to form the corresponding fluorides. Some metals such as aluminum, magnesium, nickel, copper or steel are hardly attacked because they are covered with a protective fluoride layer. But they decompose under red heat with fluorine like gold and platinum. Even the noble gases xenon and radon react with fluorine. Since fluorine also attacks glass, it is transported and stored in bottles made of copper-nickel alloys. Organic substances react with fluorine to form hydrogen fluoride and carbon fluoride. This also explains the extreme toxicity of fluorine and many of its compounds.