Is jealousy an inherent trait

Joachim Funke: Peer-reviewed diploma theses (older)

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1. Birgit Albert

Experimental investigation of the domain specificity of finite automata. Differential effects when comparing the systems 'space travel' and 'school newspaper'
(no summary available)

2. Christine Blech

The reactivity of causal diagram analysis in complex problem solving. An experimental investigation based on the complex, dynamic system ECOSYSTEM
An experiment should investigate the influence of causal diagram analyzes on problem-solving behavior and success in dealing with complex, dynamic systems. It was assumed that the knowledge-diagnostic method of process-accompanying causal diagram analyzes supports and intensifies a hypothesis-led problem-solving style sensu Klahr and Dunbar (1988). As an observable consequence of intermittent causal diagram analyzes, increased acquisition of structural knowledge and increased performance in controlling the system were expected. 64 student test subjects took part in the investigation. They worked on the DYNAMIS scenario ECOSYSTEM over five combined exploration and application runs.
Test subjects who made causal diagrams in the intervals between these runs showed that their structural knowledge was superior to those who had completed a superficial recognition test, a non-scenario-related task or no additional task at all. This speaks in favor of a reactivity of causal diagram analyzes. On the other hand, the analysis of the processing times and the use of strategies in exploring the system did not provide any definitive indications of reactivity: Causally instructed subjects neither needed more time nor explored the ECOSYSTEM more skillfully. As suspected, a path model demonstrated a high, positive, predictive relationship between structural knowledge and tax performance; however, the knowledge advantage in causal diagram analyzes did not go hand in hand with improved tax performance. The extent to which specific intervention knowledge is involved in the control process as an alternative to abstract structural knowledge could not be clarified within the scope of the experiment.
The degree of networking of the system (see Funke, 1985) and the gender of the test subjects proved to be further determinants of the problem-solving quality. Contrary to expectations, general and specifically mathematical intellectual performance had no demonstrable influence on the success of problem solving.

3. Andreas Brandl (delegated to Bernd Reuschenbach)

Brand Personality: Construct validation and development of a measuring instrument for the dimensional recording of brand personality in Germany

4. Anja Breining

Does jealousy depend on sibling position?
The aim of the study was to check whether there is a connection between jealousy in love relationships and the sibling position. The expected outcome pattern was: only children are most jealous, oldest siblings are less jealous, and least jealous are people with at least one older sibling. A variation on the hypothesis was that there might be a difference between only children and siblings (only children are more jealous than siblings).
To test this hypothesis, a questionnaire study was carried out in which a total of 106 students took part. The questionnaire comprised several measures of infidelity: subjects were asked to self-assess their jealousy, there were a few questions about their response to different types of partner infidelity, and Pfeiffer and Wong's (1989) Multidimensional Jealousy Scale (MJS) was also used. Questions were also asked about their own experiences with infidelity. In order to exclude an influence of the characteristics self-efficacy and control beliefs on the dependent variable, the questionnaire on competence and control beliefs (FKK) by Krampen (1991) was included in the survey. Then some sociobiographical questions were asked, including the number, age and gender of the siblings.
At MJS, the results showed the expected pattern of results. The self-assessment did not produce any significant results - however, the self-assessment and the MJS correlated only very slightly with one another. For the questions on the reaction to infidelity, the results corresponded to the modification of the hypothesis: only children would react significantly more jealously in the event of infidelity and would more likely leave their partner than siblings. The values ​​of the FKK had no influence on the dependent variable. In contrast to some studies by evolutionary psychologists, gender had hardly any influence - only two scales yielded significant results: men would be more likely to leave their partner if she had definitely cheated on them, and men had higher values ​​for cognitive jealousy (sub-scale the MJS).
These results cast doubts on the view of evolutionary psychologists. The theoretical basis, the method and the results of this study are discussed. The limits of the study are also shown and an outlook on further research needs is then given.

5. Ute Hagmaier

Ethical problems of medical and psychological psychotherapists in practice
In this empirical diploma thesis, the sensitivity of psychological and medical psychotherapists to different ethical problems, which are discussed in public, but also especially by psychotherapists themselves, was examined. It was about which ethical problems are particularly weighted by psychotherapists or which ethical problems they weight less and thus perhaps deny or even suppress. To record the various relevant ethical problem areas, a questionnaire was constructed in several steps. The questionnaire was designed under the direction of the IEPG (Institute for Medical Ethics, Basics and Methods of Psychotherapy and Health Culture) with the help of scientists and psychotherapists.
The evaluation was based on a sample of 101 psychotherapists. Of these, around two thirds were female therapists and around one third were male psychotherapists. Around two thirds of the sample consisted of psychological psychotherapists and one third were medical psychotherapists. Most of the sample was made up of psychotherapists with training in depth psychology-based psychotherapy and behavioral therapy. Most psychotherapists could look back on a long psychotherapy experience (professional age on average 14 years). Accordingly, the psychotherapists examined were also older (average age 47 years). A total of 8 hypotheses were formulated and tested. These hypotheses could partly be confirmed on the basis of the empirical results, partly they were refuted.
Hypothesis 1 was confirmed: "The psychotherapists questioned show different levels of sensitivity for different problem areas". Both with regard to the direction of the answer “training” and with regard to the direction of the answer “colleague” and “self”, the psychotherapists gave very different ratings. - Hypothesis 2 was also confirmed: "Ethical problems are attributed externally", i.e. to training or colleagues, but less internally to oneself. In particular, the erotic-sexual area was externally attributed by the psychotherapists. - Hypothesis 3: "As the duration of psychotherapeutic activity increases, the ethical problem awareness decreases", could not be confirmed by the empirical results. With the duration of psychotherapeutic activity, ethical problem awareness increases, albeit not significantly. - Hypothesis 4: "The erotic or sexual area is perceived as a particularly significant ethical problem area" could only be confirmed with regard to a differentiated view. - Hypothesis 5: "Depending on gender, different evaluations of different ethical problem areas will occur" could not be confirmed by the empirical data. There was no significant difference in gender in any of the 31 areas. - Hypothesis 6: "Ethical problems are weighted more strongly by psychological psychotherapists than by their medical colleagues", was clearly refuted by the empirical results. Only in one of the 31 ethical problem areas did the psychological psychotherapists give higher ratings. - Hypothesis 7 was not empirically confirmed: "Psychotherapists who do not work alone are more likely to perceive psychotherapeutic problems than colleagues who work alone". Psychotherapists who do not work alone had higher ratings in only about 50% of the ethical problem areas; in the other 50%, colleagues who work alone had higher ratings. - Hypothesis 8: "Depending on the type of psychotherapy training, ethical problem areas are weighted differently", was empirically confirmed in principle, but not in the prognosticated ethical areas. In most cases, the therapists with a psychodynamic training (depth psychological training and training in psychoanalysis) showed higher scores in the 31 ethical problem areas.

6. Maya Harden (delegated to Dr. Lisa Irmen)

Gender equitable formulation in German

7. Marc Hörster

Psychoactive Substances and Sexual Experience - Results of a Questionnaire Research and Development of a Qualitative Research Approach
In the present work, the concepts of sexuality and psychoactive substance are first to be limited in terms of definition, in order to then illustrate the interaction of both aspects and to include related factors such as set and setting. This is followed by the result of an extensive literature search, which describes the effect of various substances on sex life. In response to the question of what influence psychoactive substances have with regard to the need for love, the need for sex and the ability to have sex, the results of an empirical study are presented. In the discussion, an interpretation of the questionnaire results and an extensive methodological critique take place.
Finally, a theoretical integration of the terms or phenomena of psychoactive substances, sexuality and ritual dynamics should be attempted, the product of which should be a proposal in the form of an interview guide for further research. Ritual acts and rituals have often been associated with both psychoactive substances (e.g. shamanism) and sexuality (e.g. tantra). The question arises as to what role a ritual plays in the two contexts separately or in their interaction.

8. Marie-Catherine Lemaitre-Munzenmaier

The planning ability in children with ADHD. An experimental study related to virtual search
The thesis investigates the relationship between visual search and planning skills in children with attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) in a game situation. New research suggests that there is a possible eye motor disorder in children with ADHD. The investigation arose from this conclusion. The sample comprised 80 children between the ages of 5; 6 and 10; 5 years, 40 children had ADHD and 40 were normal. The Stripe Salad game was selected for the study of visual search and the Go Getter game for planning ability. Regardless of the diagnosis, all children were equally successful in the visual search, but the older children turned out to be faster. More younger children in the control group were more successful in planning than the children with ADHD. The older children with ADHD were just as successful, but more impulsive. A weak correlation between visual search and the pace of planning could be seen in the total sample, more pronounced in the children with ADHD. A significant negative association between visual search and planning success was found in the children with ADHD. The faster and more impulsive they act, the more mistakes they make. However, the study shows that children with ADHD develop their ability to plan later.

9. Ildiko Nagy (delegated to Dr. Lisa Irmen)

For the automatic activation and delimitation of similar gender subtypes
(no summary available)

10. Heike Pfann (together with Martina Wilke)

In dubio per REO. Risk classification and risk-specific search for risk mitigation operators
The present diploma thesis examines decision-making behavior in various risk situations. The starting point is the concept of "active risk mitigation" by Oswald Huber (e.g. 2004). It says that decision-makers in risk situations look for additional actions ("risk mitigation operators = REOn") that can reduce the risk and thus favor the decision for a riskier alternative.
The aim of the studies carried out within the scope of this thesis is a specification and extension of Huber's theory. To this end, a replication of the central results of the Huber studies is carried out. The main concern, however, is to uncover differences in the decision-making process, especially in the search for different variants of risk mitigation, for different types of risk.
For this purpose, a typology of four types of risk (normal range, medium range, catastrophes and global range) is developed, on the basis of which the risk scenarios used for further data collection are designed. For each risk type 3 scenarios are designed, each with content-related topics from the areas of health, economy / politics and ecology, so that a total of 12 scenarios are examined. In 120 interviews, verbal data from decision-making processes for these scenarios are collected using conversational AIS and think-aloud technology.
The strength of the influence of the risk types is compared with that to the detriment of the various content areas as well as interactions between risk type and content area as further influencing factors on the active risk mitigation and a ranking of the influencing factors is created from this.
It turns out that the search for different REO variants can be regarded as risk-specific to a certain extent, but that the influence at the expense of the interaction between risk type and content area is stronger overall. In this respect, the examined decision-making behavior seems to be more scenario-specific, which suggests a typology for further research into decision-making processes that takes into account not only formal but also thematic classification criteria. In addition, exploratory questions with regard to other verbal categories are taken into account.
In the final part of the thesis, the results are discussed in terms of their relevance for everyday and research practice.

11. Corina Raab

Development of a modular inventory to record risk and protective factors when using illegal psychoactive substances (IRP)
In the present work, an inventory is developed on the basis of cognitive-behavioral theories, which records risk and protective factors when using illegal psychoactive substances. Ten substance-specific modules are constructed, which on the one hand collect knowledge about and on the other hand the handling of a certain illegal substance. The substance groups for which a knowledge module and a behavior module are designed include cannabis, amphetamines, ecstasy, hallucinogens and cocaine. 25 to 29 items are formulated in each module, whereby the inventory is finally programmed as a web-based survey tool and tested on a sample of 2404 test participants. The aim is to reduce the respective modules or scales to a minimum of 15 items, whereby the determination of item difficulty, item selectivity, selection index and a factor-analytical analysis of the individual scales are used Stand in the foreground. The power of separation can be assessed as good overall, the item difficulties, on the other hand, as low overall and the selection indices as mediocre. The factor analytical charges show an average of high main and low secondary charges and thus support the item selection. The internal consistencies decrease due to the shortening of the test length. Six scales show medium consistency coefficients, while four scales show low reliabilities (knowledge of cannabis, amphetamine, cocaine and hallucinogenic behavior). Two validity coefficients are determined for each of the five behavior modules. On the one hand, questions of validity are formulated based on the DSM-IV criteria for dependency, and on the other hand, the frequency of consumption is used as a second validity criterion. Medium to very high validities are observed for all behavior modules. Further hypothesis tests, standardization and the determination of validity coefficients for the knowledge modules are still pending.

12. Christian Schmidt

The recording of shame using scenario technology based on the Heidelberg questionnaire on feelings of shame (HFS)
In the present work, using various versions of the Heidelberg Questionnaire on Feelings of Shame (HFS), it was examined whether there are significant differences in the response behavior of test persons, in particular between the projectively designed original version of the HFS and an experimentally constructed non-projective form of the HFS.Furthermore, the hypothesis should be checked whether the projective original version of the HFS captures the individual feeling of shame or rather the knowledge of a test person about feeling rules with regard to shame-inducing situations. For this purpose, a second experimentally varied HFS scale was constructed.
In total, a random sample of N = 57 test persons processed all three HFS versions at two measurement times. The time interval between the measurement times was 4-6 weeks. The results were able to confirm that there are significant differences in the processing of the projective and non-projective HFS version, which is an indication that the HFS in its original form does not record the individual shame of a test person. However, it could not be sufficiently proven that the recording of shame in the original form of the HFS is the test subjects' knowledge of feeling rules with regard to situations that trigger shame. Based on the theory of cognitive schemas, it can only be assumed that the specification of different HFS versions leads to a different degree of activation of the concept of feeling rules and thereby influences the response behavior of the test subjects.

13. Martina Wilke (together with Heike Pfann)

In dubio per REO. Risk classification and risk-specific search for risk mitigation operators
The present diploma thesis examines decision-making behavior in various risk situations. The starting point is the concept of "active risk mitigation" by Oswald Huber (e.g. 2004). It says that decision-makers in risk situations look for additional actions ("risk mitigation operators = REOn") that can reduce the risk and thus favor the decision for a riskier alternative.
The aim of the studies carried out within the scope of this thesis is a specification and extension of Huber's theory. To this end, a replication of the central results of the Huber studies is carried out. The main concern, however, is to uncover differences in the decision-making process, especially in the search for different variants of risk mitigation, for different types of risk.
For this purpose, a typology of four types of risk (normal range, medium range, catastrophes and global range) is developed, on the basis of which the risk scenarios used for further data collection are designed. For each risk type 3 scenarios are designed, each with content-related topics from the areas of health, economy / politics and ecology, so that a total of 12 scenarios are examined. In 120 interviews, verbal data from decision-making processes for these scenarios are collected using conversational AIS and think-aloud technology.
The strength of the influence of the risk types is compared with that to the detriment of the various content areas as well as interactions between risk type and content area as further influencing factors on the active risk mitigation and a ranking of the influencing factors is created from this.
It turns out that the search for different REO variants can be regarded as risk-specific to a certain extent, but that the influence at the expense of the interaction between risk type and content area is stronger overall. In this respect, the examined decision-making behavior seems to be more scenario-specific, which suggests a typology for further research into decision-making processes that takes into account not only formal but also thematic classification criteria. In addition, exploratory questions with regard to other verbal categories are taken into account.
In the final part of the thesis, the results are discussed in terms of their relevance for everyday and research practice.


1. Unni Aadland (delegated to Dr. Lisa Irmen)

Autobiographical memory and self-esteem: High and low self-esteem individuals remembering events of pride and shame
The present thesis investigates self-esteem's effect on autobiographical memory retrieval. 69 undergraduate students at the Psychological Department of the University of Heidelberg completed the Revised Version of the German Adaptation of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (von Collani & Herzberg, 2003) and recalled past experiences of pride and shame. Subsequently, they rated their memories with regard to emotional intensity at recall, emotional intensity during event, personal relevance of event, rumination, and easiness of retrieval. The memory ratings revealed no significant difference between participants high or low in self-esteem. The results are non-supportive of the hypothesis proposing that people low in self-esteem recall more negative memories compared to people high in self-esteem. An overgeneral retrieval mode in people with low self-esteem was not found. Participants were very specific about negative memories and reported positive memories in rather general terms. Overall, an extremely high level of self-esteem was found in the sample.
This diploma thesis examines the relationship between a person's self-esteem and their autobiographical memory. 69 psychology students at Heidelberg University were asked to recall situations in their own life in which they were ashamed or particularly proud. The test subjects' self-esteem was determined using the revised version of the German-language scale for self-esteem by Rosenberg (von Collani & Herzberg, 2003), and it was also determined how emotional the remembered situation was and what relevance the test persons attach to the situation for their own lives . The results do not support the hypothesis that people with low self-esteem recall more negative autobiographical memories than those with high self-esteem. The test subjects remembered negative experiences very specifically, but described the positive experiences more globally. This does not support the hypothesis that people with low self-esteem have global negative memories. Overall, the sample showed a very high level of self-esteem in the test subjects.

2. Simone Braun

Quality of semi-automatic tests for model identification of ARIMA time series. A simulation study
ARIMA modeling using the Box-Jenkins method is based on stochastic processes that are often not stationary. Their use requires special knowledge at least if the modeling is done "by hand". Reliable explanations and forecasts can only be realized through suitable underlying models. The systematics of a time series is described on the basis of its own historical course by an ARIMA model by identifying an appropriate mathematical model, which is determined by the number or the order of the autoregressive model parameters (p), the stationarity-producing differences (d) and the moving average parameter (q) can be characterized. By comparing theoretical and empirical partial and autocorrelation functions, conclusions can be drawn about the number of parameters of the individual components. The decision-making process should be supported by the semiautomatic tests Minimum Information Criterion (MINIC), Smallest Canonical Correlation (SCAN) and the Extended Autocorrelation Function (ESACF) - so far there are no corresponding simulation studies on their quality in the literature. This thesis examines how reliably the correct model is identified by the MINIC, SCAN and ESACF methods. On the basis of 14,400 experiments it is documented that only the minimum information criterion (MINIC) largely correctly identifies the specified model of stationary AR or MA processes of the first order. The frequency of correct identifications of ARIMA models increases with increasing expression in the parameter level and decreasing intercorrelations of the parameter estimates. The semi-automatic model identification of stationary and differential stationary processes * before * difference formation does not differ. Regardless of the number of measurement times, ESACF generally recommends too many model parameters.

3. Andrea Grau

Complex problem solving in political scenarios. Impact of political expertise and ideology on the process of resolving international conflicts
The present study examines the connection between political expertise and complex problem solving in political scenarios with special consideration of political conservatism, understood as motivated social cognition (Jost, Glaser, Kruglanski & Sulloway, 2003). The participants in the experiment were assessed with regard to their political expertise - operationalized on the basis of their political knowledge - as well as their ideological attitude - using the conservatism scale from Schiebel, Riemann & Mummendey (1984) and a German-language version of the social dominance orientation scale from Six, Wolfradt & Zick (2001) - each divided into two groups. A total of 61 test persons worked on two international conflicts using pencil and paper with the aim of finding a solution. The protocols received were analyzed with regard to the detailed solution procedure (representation and solution phase) as well as the concrete proposed solutions. The resulting pattern of results is ambivalent and so there is only limited influence of different political expertise and ideology on the problem-solving process and the proposed solutions. The results nevertheless show that (1) the solution procedure (representation and solution phase) and the concrete solution proposal have no direct connection, (2) different political expertise has stronger effects on the problem-solving process, while different political values ​​seem to influence the solution proposals more strongly and (3) the solution procedure as well as the concrete solution proposals depend on the content of the conflict.

4. Angelika Heim

Drug addiction classification: construction of reliable and valid subgroups
The aim of this work was the formation of reliable and valid subgroups in drug addicts. The central question was whether it is possible to classify the patients on the basis of the data records of the Trier inventory for drug addicts (TIM; Funke, Funke, Klein & Scheller, 1984) and thus assign drug addicts to different subgroups.
Based on the theory that drug addiction is a multidimensional construct, the creation of typologies should reveal differences between drug addicts for research and therapy. Subsequently, it would be possible to develop a classification procedure for drug addicts that is manageable for the therapist and that would facilitate differentiated intervention planning and the development of therapeutic goals for the patient.
The empirical study was tested as a hypothesis-testing study on a data set from patients who were in the initial phase of inpatient withdrawal treatment in the addiction clinic (Kliniken Wied).
In order to test the hypothesis, the TIM results were subjected to a hierarchical cluster analysis according to Ward in order to identify homogeneous subgroups. In the seven clusters determined, one cluster has a disproportionately higher proportion of women; one can speak of a women’s cluster, women are overrepresented in another cluster and the sixth cluster is characterized by an increased proportion of men. The names of the individual clusters are: "still winners I and II", "inconspicuous drug addicts", low-dose addicts "," deniers "," drug addicts without profit "and" severely addicts "to ensure the stability of the groups found A discriminant analysis was carried out, which achieved satisfactory results. The inclusion of external features for validation is just as satisfactory.
Overall, the formation of reliable and valid subgroups can be viewed as successful. For future studies, it would be desirable to check the 7-cluster solution on a larger sample and to include more external variables, such as various personality questionnaires, for validation.

5. Nina Hohmann

Functional imaging (BOLD_fMRT) of working memory in patients with progressive schizophrenia
Previous fMRI research in the field of schizophrenia focused primarily on the localization of dysfunctional networks in the processing of cognitive tasks. Working memory tasks such as the n-back paradigm were used to investigate possible differences in the activated network in the brain of schizophrenic patients compared to healthy subjects. In these examinations, the patients exhibited hypofrontality or dysfunctional activation of the frontal cortex. The temporal variability of activated brain regions of schizophrenic patients, which has been neglected in previous research, was the focus of this work. In order to investigate this temporal variability of the neural activations in the processing of cognitive tasks in more detail, the fMRI-BOLD responses and the performance of schizophrenic patients were measured at two measurement times two weeks apart when processing a visual-spatial n-back paradigm with a Control group compared.
For this purpose, five (3 male / 2 female) schizophrenic patients (ICD 10: F 20) who were stably neuroleptic and were in the post-remissive phase and seven (4 male / 3 female) control persons were examined. The working memory paradigm was carried out as a block paradigm with three levels of difficulty (0-back, 1-back, 2-back) in a 1.5 T MR tomograph with the help of a standard head coil and an EPI technique and then post-processed with the image processing program SPM99. The activated voxels were identified assuming the “General Linear Model” and calculated for significant differences in the activation intensity with the aid of a VOI (“volumes of interest”) analysis. The clinical symptoms of the patients were recorded at both times using the "Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale" (Overall & Gorham, 1962) and the "Eppendorfer Schizophrenia Inventory" (Maß et al., 2000).
In the 1-back and 2-back conditions of the n-back paradigm, the patients performed significantly worse than the test subjects. The patients did not improve significantly over time, but showed a lower number of errors at the second measurement point in time. The clinical symptoms improved slightly. The test persons showed a stable activation pattern from the inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral medius in the frontal area in the 2- versus 0-back contrast. At the first measurement time, the patients showed reduced activation with lateralization of the left hemisphere compared to the test persons; after two weeks the frontal activation pattern approached that of the test persons.
Overall, one can speak of hypofrontality in the patients at the first measurement time, which at the second measurement time was more of a dysfunctional frontal activation. The dysfunctional activation patterns of schizophrenic patients in the post-acute stage can thus change and contribute to an improvement in cognitive performance. This is the point at which therapy programs can start that improve the cognitive abilities of schizophrenic patients, the effectiveness of which can be proven in the brain.

6. Sonja Kiko

A construct validation of the Machiavellian trait using structural equation models
The study examines the relationship between trait Machiavellianism and various constructs from the areas of general intelligence, emotional intelligence, empathy, emotional experience and personality traits using structural equation models on 229 employed people between the ages of 27 and 43 of both sexes and different levels of education. The explanations by Christie and Geis (1970), McIlwain (2003) and Wiggings (1979) are fundamental for this investigation. The majority of the models examined here must be rejected; the only suitable models relate to emotional experience and empathy: Affective empathy shows a negative influence on Machiavellianism, whereas cognitive empathy has no influence on Machiavellianism. The emotional experience of the Machiavellian can be described on the basis of the results of the work as follows: Machiavellism is not predictable through the experience of an overflow of emotions, but it can be through a pronounced experience of a lack of emotions. Contrary to the assumption of the present work, the acceptance of one's own emotions has a positive influence on Machiavellianism. The few valid structural coefficients only reach low to medium heights, which suggests the need to investigate specific Machiavellian components in connection with various constructs. Above all, this seems to be appropriate because the study strongly questions the construct validity of the Machiavellian trait due to the predominantly non-matching models.

7. Tobias Knapp

Smokers die earlier! Investigation of the effect of warnings on cigarette packets
In this work, the influence of warnings on the explicit and implicit attitudes of smokers and non-smokers was examined. The notices must have been available on tobacco products since October 1, 2003. The strength of the health hazards that the warnings warn of was manipulated in the investigation. The implicit attitudes of all test subjects should become significantly more negative when exposed to strongly negative cues than when exposed to weakly negative cues. This hypothesis should not show any significant differences between smokers and non-smokers.In the case of the explicit setting, no difference was expected only under the exposure of weak evidence. In contrast, if there are strong indications, the explicit attitude of smokers should become significantly more positive than the attitude of nonsmokers. In the case of smokers, it was expected that the strong cues produced a cognitive dissonance, which is reduced by correcting the explicit attitude in a positive direction.
On the one hand, the preventive effect is given because the attitude of non-smokers is becoming more and more negative. The described effect of the warning notices is very questionable, especially when looking at the artificially generated positive (not positive!) Image of smoking. This image is conveyed by smokers, including children and adolescents, when the warnings are too strong. At this point in particular, the present work provides a constructive impetus for changing the tobacco product regulation. It can help ensure that it can fulfill its important purpose as a preventive measure and to reduce the smoking rate to a greater extent.

8. Kerstin Liebig

Applicant retention during pre-selection. An exploratory field study on how organizations deal with applicants against the background of new internet technologies and talent relationship management
An exploratory field study examines how organizations deal with applicants during pre-selection. The focus here is on aspects of Talent Relationship Management, as such aspects are very likely to gain in importance against the background of the future competition for qualified personnel. For this purpose, two fictitious male university graduates with different qualifications apply proactively online to 30 organizations. All company reactions are recorded in detail over a period of 21 working days and finally analyzed with regard to the talent relationship management criteria speed, transparency, individual treatment, feedback and applicant pool. The results show that organizations are currently not making a significant difference in the treatment of qualified and less qualified applicants and are therefore very likely to lose very good employees in the long term. So companies seem to have not yet recognized the importance of talent-focused treatment of applicants. They implement the individual criteria in the various company reactions to different degrees. In the case of the company reaction "Rejection", there is a need for improvement in the qualification-dependent formulation, while the specified criteria are well implemented in confirmations of receipt.

9. Katja Manecke

Judgment errors in complex specific systems or "Is the dissipation effect task-specific or universal?"
The present work examines the question of how laypeople judge changes in ecosystems using two different models. On the one hand, a paradigm by Peter A. White on the dissipation effect (dissolution effect) is presented, who found out that the estimated change in a disorder dissolves more and more with increasing distance from it and demonstrates that the judgments are made on the basis of one-dimensional causal sets of rules. The second model by David W. Green, the mental simulation model, states that when assessing a disturbance in an ecosystem, a mental simulation runs that is tailored to the requirements of the task at hand and is adaptive if contradictions occur. Both models are discussed theoretically and examined empirically. When a White experiment was modified, the dissipation effect could be confirmed; when a study on the model of mental simulation was modified, there were contradicting results, the developed mental models seem to be versatile, the question of whether the mental simulation is adaptive could not be clarified.

10. Maryam Mohraz

The influence of the type of text when learning with linear and non-linear information media on the cognitive load and knowledge acquisition
With this article I take up the global assumption of the cognitive overhead in learning with non-linear information media and specify this in more detail using the cognitive load theory and models of text comprehension. The focus is on considering the dimensions that cause an extraneous cognitive load and can have an impact on learning success. In a study with a 2x2-factorial design, the assumption was examined that the extraneous cognitive load in learning with hypertext mainly comes about through the interaction of the type of text (with or without narrative structure) and the presentation format (linear / non-linear). 60 participants were presented with a narrative or encyclopaedic text in a linear or non-linear presentation format in a computer-based learning program. The cognitive load was recorded using two subjective scales. The learning success was determined on the basis of the individual increase in knowledge. For this purpose, the relative number of correctly reproduced propositions in the essays from the pre- and post-test were compared by means of a quantitative proportional analysis. The results confirm the hypothesis that the non-linear presentation of a narrative text has a negative effect on cognitive load and learning success. This effect did not occur in the encyclopedic condition. There was no significant difference in the cognitive load or in the number of reproduced propositions. The results of this study also serve as a cross-validation of the recording of stelebatings for cognitive additional workload with the propositional analyzes for recording knowledge acquisition.

11. Jens Daniel Peter (delegated to Dr. Lisa Irmen)

The influence of general and specific facilitation on the experienced emotional intensity of autobiographical memories
The present work was developed as a follow-up investigation of the research project "Processes of emotion regulation in patients with borderline personality disorder" by Dr. B. Renneberg at the Psychological Institute of the University of Heidelberg. First, an overview of the state of research on autobiographical memory was given. One focus was the Conway model (Conway, 1996; Conway & Pleydell-Pearce, 2000) for the structure and representation of the autobiographical knowledge base. Of particular importance were assumptions that result from this model for processes of emotion regulation in autobiographical memory. Two approaches were presented that deal with these processes. These two approaches tend to provide competing statements with regard to the effects of specific and general remembering on the experienced emotional intensity when remembering. The approach of Williams (1996) assumes that general remembering - at least for depressed patients - represents a kind of "protective mechanism" and is associated with less intense experience than specific remembering. Philippot, Schaefer and Herbette (2003), on the other hand, assumed that the emotional intensity of specific remembering is normally inhibited and that for this reason the intensity experienced is greater in comparison with general remembering. Both approaches were presented and placed in the extended research context.
The aim of the present work was to shed light on the connection between general and specific autobiographical memory and the regulation of emotions that occur in the process. On the one hand, the results of Philippot et al. (2003) can be replicated. On the other hand, in the context of exploratory questions, knowledge should be gained about the influence of the emotional valence (positive and negative) of the events to be remembered as well as the gender on the process in question. In addition, the test subjects completed the questionnaire on thoughts and feelings (FGG; Renneberg and Schirmer, 1998). This was done in order to control possible connections between the observed processes and typical borderline cognitions.
It was expected that the experienced emotional intensity in remembering would be lower for specific memories than for general memories, regardless of the emotional valence of the memories and the gender of the test subjects. It was also assumed that the emotional intensity experienced in the case of specific memories is lower than the intensity when the corresponding event was originally experienced. The reduction in intensity should not be observed in general remembering.
45 clinically inconspicuous test persons took part in the investigation, the participants were on the one hand students of psychology and on the other hand people from the circle of acquaintances of the examiner. All participants filled out a diary in which they noted positive and negative personal events over a period of 12 days and rated their intensity. From these events, two positive and two negative events were selected, which were then to be remembered again in the further course of the investigation. In order to ensure the memory of these events in the "general" or "specific" mode, the test subjects had to go through a facilitating phase. At this stage, you should memorize either general or specific memories. The memory material for this facilitating phase was obtained from the participants' associations. Following this facilitating phase, they again remembered and imagined the selected emotional diary event and assessed the intensity of the emotion experienced on a rating scale. Then the participants filled out the FGG.
The results of Philippot et al. (2003) could not be replicated for any of the hypotheses presented, but there was agreement in the tendency. There was no significant difference between general and specific memories in terms of the emotional intensity experienced when remembering. A trend only became apparent when the emotional valence of memories and the gender of the test subjects were taken into account. In this case, there was a tendency for the intensity values ​​for memories made generally to be greater than for memories made specifically. However, the intensity values ​​in each combination of conditions in the experimental phase increased significantly compared to the intensity values ​​of the events in the diary. The results also provide indications that processes of emotion regulation in autobiographical remembering may be dependent on emotional valence and gender. Above all, the triple interaction of the factors "degree of specificity", "emotion" and "gender" could be of importance. The FGG values ​​only correlated with the intensity values ​​of the general memories, but this was very clear for both emotional valences.
In the discussion part, the results were classified according to the current state of research. It became particularly clear that the values ​​for the experienced emotional intensity in the facilitating phase could have a decisive influence on the intensity experienced during remembering in the experimental phase. In addition, the possibility was presented and justified that both the results of Philippot et al. (2003) as well as the results of the present study can be interpreted alternatively. The evidence allows the assumption that the experienced emotional intensity is not inhibited in specific remembering, at least for the negative emotional valence, but is intensified in the case of general remembering. For the positive valence, this could only be assumed for male test subjects.
These considerations were justified both with results from other studies as well as with information from the present study. What is particularly striking is the high positive correlation of the FGG values ​​with the intensity values ​​of the general memories, while at the same time there is no significant correlation with the intensity values ​​for specifically created memories. This fact could be interpreted coherently with the developed alternative interpretation.

12. Barbara Pfeifer (delegated to Dr. Lisa Irmen)

Investigation of the generation of environments according to the decision-making preference and the associated self-regulation using the example of career choice

13. Julia Sarti

Learning a molecular biological experiment with solution examples
In the present work, two interventions in the learning of a molecular biological experiment with solution examples were realized and combined with each other. First, a fading procedure through the transition from a complete to an incomplete solution example. Second, self-explanations induced by prompts. Both the learning success and the situational achievement motivation were taken into account.
The hypothesis that the learning success increases significantly over the measurement times for conditions that combine the two interventions was confirmed. However, it could not be confirmed that the treatment groups performed significantly better in the post-test than the control group as a result of the interventions. Neither the fading procedure nor the induction of self-explanations nor a combination of the two interventions could increase the learning success. The assumption that the treatment groups performed significantly better in the transfer questionnaire than the control group had to be rejected.
At the motivational level it could be confirmed that the FAM factor interest correlates significantly with the learning success in the knowledge test at the third measurement point in time, but not with the transfer test. The hypotheses that after the intervention in the treatment groups the FAM factors challenge and fear of failure should be significantly lower than in the control group had to be rejected.
The assumption that people with little prior knowledge had a lower fear of failure than those with high prior knowledge could not be confirmed; with regard to the probability of success, no significant difference could be found between the groups with low and high prior knowledge.

14. Jochen Schönemann

Feedback effects in virtual learning groups. The promotion of collaborative action and learning through feedback of motivational and emotional data and information on collaboration
This experimental study explored how collaborative work and learning can be supported. Two methods of promoting collaborative action were compared with one another: on the one hand, the complementary distribution of learning resources, on the other hand, the feedback of motivational and emotional data and information on cooperation. Based on more recent research that deals with defining aspects of collaborations, a coding scheme was first developed with the help of which it is possible to identify collaborative actions in the interaction of learners.
In order to check the effectiveness of the two methods for promoting collaborative action, a virtual cooperation environment was used in which dyads of learners work on a clinical-psychological problem. According to a 2x2 factorial design, the distribution of resources and the feedback were varied. On the one hand, the learners were able to access complete or insufficient learning material to solve the problem. Their emotional and motivational state of mind was recorded at regular intervals. Their interactions were also followed by an observer. On the other hand, according to the experimental design, in half of the cases there was immediate feedback of the emotional-motivational data and the collaboration events, in the other half this feedback was completely absent.
An influence of the interventions on the number of collaborative actions, on the acquisition of knowledge, on the group climate and on the quality of the case solution was postulated. The results show a clear advantage of the feedback and a weak influence of the resource allocation: The feedback led to more collaborative actions, to a marginally better group atmosphere and to a qualitatively better case solution, but contrary to the prediction, not to a greater increase in knowledge. As expected, the distribution of the learning material only influenced the number of collaborative interactions, but not the increase in knowledge.

15. Melanie Simon

Self-assessment of memory performance in neurological patients: the influence of frontal executive functions, depression and anxiety
Based on a heterogeneous set of findings on self-assessments of memory performance, the present diploma thesis aims to work out the influence of depression and anxiety as well as frontal executive functions. While the empirical findings of previous studies were able to identify disorders of wellbeing as a moderator variable for biased self-statements, findings on the influence of frontal executive functions are rare and largely limited to assumptions. In order to empirically investigate this aspect, the total sample of 80 neurological patients was divided into four subgroups based on their results in a verbal memory test and a self-assessment questionnaire. In addition to two groups who were able to accurately assess their memory performance - regardless of their level of performance ("Accurate Normal" and "Accurately Impaired"), two subgroups were extracted whose self-assessment differed from the actual level of their memory performance. While the "wailing seeds" underestimated their capabilities, the "minimizers" overestimated their memory capabilities. The groups were compared on the basis of their results in various neuropsychological test procedures and well-being parameters.In line with expectations, the "complaining seeds" were characterized by significantly higher values ​​in the HADS-D state of health measures and significantly higher values ​​in the STAI than their comparison group "Accurate Normals". Earlier findings that linked the overestimation of memory deficits to disorders of wellbeing (including Bolla, Lindgren & Bleecker, 1991; Hütter & Gilsbach, 1995; Gass & Apple, 1997; Fischer, 1989), could be replicated. At the same time, deficits in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test were found in the "minimizers", which differed significantly from the deficits of the "accurately impaired" in two of the four parameters, including the indicator variable "number of perseveration errors". The assumptions made in earlier studies that frontal executive functions could also have an influence on the self-assessment of memory performance as a further moderator variable (Beatty & Monson, 1991; Squire & Zouzounis, 1988; Rourke, Halman & Bassel, 1999 and others), were made possible by the results of the present work should be empirically substantiated. In this sample, impairments of the frontal executive functions actually go hand in hand with the underestimation of mnestic deficits.

16. Kerstin Stickel

The neuroanatomical correlates of implicit memory are investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging
This study was designed to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of implicit memory, especially in the area of ​​the cerebellum and the frontal lobe, using a sequential visual-spatial paradigm in block design while performing an fMRI. Furthermore, it was investigated whether there are differences between the reaction times of the sequence and those of the random blocks and whether the variances of the reaction times of the visual-spatial task differ from the variances of the reaction times of the control task. 11 healthy subjects (right-handed, four female, seven male, mean age 26 years, age between 20 and 33 years, SD = 4.96) were examined while working through this paradigm. However, the data analysis is based only on the data of 8 instead of the 11 initially recruited test subjects, since two of the test subjects had demonstrably explicitly learned the sequence of the visuospatial task and another subject broke off the investigation. While the imaging data did not show a significantly stronger cerebellar activation in the sequence condition compared to the control condition, a significantly stronger activation of the frontal lobe could be detected in the sequence condition. With regard to the behavioral data, the test subjects showed significantly shorter reaction times in the sequence blocks compared to the random blocks. However, the variances in the response times of the visuospatial task were not significantly less than the variances in the response times of the control task.

17. Esther Stroe-Kunold

Multivariate analysis of unsteady time series: integration and cointegration in theory and simulation
With the help of the cointegration methodology, multivariate modeling and analysis of transient or integrated time series is possible. For the justification of the cointegration concept, which is at the center of the thesis, the econometrician C.W.J. Granger won the Nobel Prize in 2003. Cointegrated models and their error correction representations make it possible to consider the two process properties of equilibrium and dynamic adaptation processes. The multivariate process, which is composed of the cointegrated component processes, is to be understood as a stable system - represented by a stationary linear combination weighted by the cointegration vector - in which deviations from the long-term equilibrium are only of a temporary nature. The methodological topic is developed within the framework of the work for psychological research practice, in the context of which time-related phenomena to be modeled play a not insignificant role, which are not infrequently interrelated. The overarching goal of the presentation of the cointegration approach is the theoretical and empirical examination of the necessary conditions for the existence of cointegration. For this reason, after presenting the basics of time series analysis necessary for understanding the approach, the definitions of cointegration, which are inconsistent in some points in the specialist literature, are theoretically contrasted and discussed. The connection between sham regression and cointegration is examined and the functions of cointegration vector and adaptation coefficient, which have so far been little interpreted, are described and graphically illustrated. In addition, the test procedures relevant to the empirical part are presented. The detailed theoretical part, which also contains a literature overview and is rounded off by the explanation of fractionally integrated and cointegrated models and current application examples, is followed by the empirical part, in the context of which hypotheses on the quality of the estimate of the cointegration vector and the adjustment coefficient are checked by Monte Carlo simulations . The theoretical assumptions made about the cointegration concept are validated by systematic simulations of the test procedures. The diploma thesis concludes with a final consideration in a psychological context.

18. Christoph Witzel

What prototypes can teach us about unknown knowledge
The present paper explores the perception of structure in implicit learning. Its objective is to provide a model of the learned structure that is usable in future research on the relationship beween basic abilities to perceive structure and more complex, analytical competencies. Implicit learning is understood in the context of a broader theory on intuitive and analytical intelligence. This theory interrogates the assumption that the features, by which a stimulus or situation may be analyzed and described, are naturally given by the external environment. Instead, it argues that such features are a product of neural processes that make it possible to perceive constancies and to relate experiences from the past to new experiences through learning. The epistemological consequences of this constructivist theory are also applied to the researcher, and methodological consequences are taken into account. The stimulus images used in the empirical studies are produced randomly so that structural regularities are not directly manipulated by the researcher. The model proposed in this paper describes the implicitly learned structure by using the first Principal Components. This model has characteristics that correspond to those of prototypes. Although being concordant with the connectionist line of thought, the proposed model is more illustrative in its simplicity and more interpretable in its results than Artificial Neural Networks. Two paradigms, called Spontaneous Categorization and Prototype Priming, have been developed to test this model. The Prototype Priming experiment confirmed all predictions and reveals itself as being very promising for the future applications.

19. Kerstin Wolf (delegated to Dr. Lisa Irmen)

The interaction of two control processes of directing attention: inhibition of return and implicitly learned control of directing attention
This study investigates whether the emergence of implicitly learned control of attention control (IKA) in a regular environment replaces the inhibition process Inhibition of Return (IOR) or whether both remain effective at the same time. To investigate this question, the spatial cue stimulus paradigm by Posner (1984) was used in a non-informative and an informative variant. The subjects of the informative condition also worked on a generation task and a post-experimental questionnaire to check whether implicit learning had taken place. The typical IOR effect was replicated with the uninformative condition. In the informative condition it could be demonstrated on the one hand that the test persons implicitly learned the regularities of the test procedure. On the other hand, it was shown in the informative condition that the strength of the IOR effect decreases with simultaneous development of IKA over the course of the experiment. The reduction could not be fully explained either with habituation or with other experience effects. Even if the IOR effect decreases, it does not disappear, but stabilizes at a still high level. The results show that IKA and IOR are active at the same time in lively environments with salient cues and complement each other in their effect. Even if it cannot be ruled out that IKA has a slight influence on IOR, the overall relationship between the two processes can be described as rather parallel. The present work thus supports the view that IOR is a strong, i.e. rigid and mandatory process.

20. Nicole Wullers (delegated to Bernd Reuschenbach)

Stress experience and recreational behavior of caregiving relatives of people with traumatic brain injury
The aim of this study was to consider the stress experience and recovery behavior of caregivers of traumatic brain injuries from different perspectives. On the one hand, the stress, recovery and well-being of nine caregivers were recorded using three quantitative instruments (EBF, MDBF, EBE) and compared with the results of a control sample. There are no differences between the two groups. However, positive correlative relationships between recovery and positive well-being can be determined both within the group of relatives and within the control group. In a second approach, the nine caring relatives were asked in qualitative interviews about their stress and coping strategies, about positive aspects of care and about their recovery behavior. The generated transcripts were qualitatively evaluated by content analysis. This resulted in a far-reaching confirmation of the findings from the literature. In addition, numerous external and internal influencing factors could be determined that have an inhibiting or promoting effect on recovery behavior. The findings were integrated into a hypothetical process model of recreational behavior.


1. Doris Erbe

New predictors of success in smoking cessation: self-concept and implicit attitude
The aim of the diploma thesis is to find new success predictors based on the often low success rate of smoking cessation measures, which are to be located within the individual. Due to the frequent discrepancy between the expressed intention to quit smoking and the corresponding efforts on the one hand and frequent continued smoking on the other hand, one suspicion was that the processes underlying smoking cessation were not (or at least not exclusively) under the (conscious) control of the person concerned are or occur unconsciously. Guided by the assumptions of two-process models such as the MODE model by Fazio (1990), the aim was to investigate whether implicitly measured variables can predict success in smoking cessation. The implicit self-concept and the implicit attitude were chosen, since previous studies have already shown statistically significant differences between smokers and non-smokers in both variables.
The hypotheses of the study were that, on the one hand, attitude and self-concept are significant predictors of weaning success and, on the other hand, that the implicit forms of both variables have their own parts in explaining the variance. In the survey, a sample of 40 people, mainly recruited from smoking cessation courses, recorded attitudes and self-concept towards smoking in both their explicit and implicit forms, as well as physical nicotine dependence and some facts about current and planned smoking behavior. The implicit measures were recorded with variants of the Implicit Association Test (IAT), all others with a questionnaire. Four weeks after the initial examination, the subjects were asked about their current daily consumption of cigarettes by telephone.
The evaluation was carried out with the help of hierarchical regression analyzes and showed that the implicit attitude and the explicitly recorded self-concept can predict the decline in the number of cigarettes smoked daily, whereas only the explicit self-image seems to play a role in achieving the target consumption. The direction of the prediction was surprising: the more negative the implicit attitude of a smoker to smoking and the more he or she sees himself or herself as a non-smoker, the lower the success in quitting. The former could be due to the fact that those who are accustomed to failure have a lower chance of success and also have a more negative implicit attitude towards smoking than smokers who have not yet tried to quit. The latter could have something to do with the fact that smokers first have to become aware that they are smokers before they can work on quitting.

2. Carmen Fehrenbach

The production of a science film: Neglect - Only half the world (PDF file available)
This diploma thesis describes the conception and production of a science film of 63 minutes with the title "Neglect - Nur die halbe Welt". The film is attached to the work on DVD and is an essential part of the work. It conveys the basics of symptoms, diagnosis and therapy of the neuropsychological disorder. The film was made between January 2003 and August 2004 in cooperation with the Schmieder, Speyererhof, Heidelberg, and the neurological university clinics in Heidelberg, Mannheim and Tübingen.

3. Marion Hachmann-Gleixner

The Psychological Institute Heidelberg during National Socialism and in the post-war period (PDF file available)
The history of the Heidelberg Psychological Institute, with a focus on the influence of National Socialism on research and teaching, as well as the post-war period and the management of the institute by Professors Hellpach and Rudert, are the subject of this work. Comparison of the range of courses, pre-diploma theses, doctoral theses and, since 1941, diploma degrees from the time before, during and after the end of the National Socialist regime made it possible to examine the effects of National Socialism on psychology in Heidelberg. For the study period from 1925 to the end of the 1950s, publications that deal with the development of psychology in general were taken into account. Personnel and course directories, preliminary diploma theses, diploma degrees and dissertations were recorded and descriptively evaluated. Semi-structured interviews, in which documents and pictures were used as memory aids, were conducted with a few contemporary witnesses. The data recorded from these interviews often served as a reference for research in archives. Sources from the University Archives Heidelberg and Leipzig, the Main State Archives Stuttgart and the Federal Archives Koblenz were researched and evaluated. The request for files from the Federal Archives-Military Archive for documents from the central Wehrmacht offices was unsuccessful, as many documents from the period up to 1945 have been lost.
The first part of the thesis deepens the analysis of the genesis of psychology in Heidelberg from the mid-20s to the end of the 50s, and takes into account the effects of the personnel changes forced by the National Socialists on institutionalization. The second part focuses on the first post-war ordinary Johannes Rudert, taking into account his professional work at the University of Leipzig and as an army psychologist.
At the Psychological Institute of Heidelberg University, National Socialism led, through anti-Semitic activities and the effects of the war, to a slowdown in professionalization and to restrictions in the expression of opinion of the lecturers. Willy Hellpach avoided getting into personal difficulties through open opposition and was able to continue his professional and personal interests during the National Socialist rule with few restrictions. At the beginning of the National Socialist rule, Johannes Rudert was at the Leipzig Psychological Institute. As assistant to Felix Krueger, he took part in the preparation of the 13th congress of the German Society for Psychology, after which he edited an article on the congress with a völkisch element. The euphoria for the new rulers, which is reflected in the article, did not last long, in his research and teaching Rudert was not guided by the National Socialist ideology. In 1935, he courageously dealt with the typology of Erich Jaensch in his habilitation thesis and he offered his students guidance through his openly expressed rejection of National Socialism. He never openly discussed the events of the 13th Congress, at the end of the National Socialist regime, but asked whether we are living “only on the surface or just from adapting to what everyone is talking and doing”.

4. Monika Köppl (delegated to Dr. Birgit Träuble)

The influence of domain-specific knowledge on causal perception
To distinguish between domain-specific and cross-domain approaches to the development of causal perception, the influence of conceptual knowledge on causal perception will be examined using the theory of Mandler (1992, 1998). To this end, it was investigated whether 7-month-old infants can use categorical knowledge about living beings and inanimate objects in order to perceive a covert causal event as such.As part of an expectation violation paradigm, 28 infants were accustomed to a film in a gaze-controlled habituation procedure that depicted a concealed collision event between a person and a box. The two test sequences without obscuration showed scenes in which the person, as expected, hit the box (contact) or stopped, and the box moved on its own (non-contact). A preference to look at the non-contact event was considered an indicator that the habituation scene was interpreted causally. Since the results could not prove any viewing preferences for one of the two test scenes, changes to the material and the procedure as well as explanations of alternative theoretical approaches are discussed.

5. Grit Ramuschkat

Prospective memory and aging
At the heart of this thesis are four publication projects that are in different stages of the publication process. All four empirical contributions can be assigned to the topic "Prospective Memory and Aging". The main focus of this work is the investigation of those cognitive as well as non-cognitive processes that could be the basis of age-related decreases in prospective memory performance. The investigation of prefrontal cortical functions is considered to be a particularly promising approach in this regard. But also the effects of the perceived task importance as a potential non-cognitive influencing factor on the prospective memory performance are examined, among which older and younger adults achieve comparable results. The research questions are examined on the basis of partly different prospective task types.
The four publication projects that make up part B of the empirical contributions are supplemented by a common part A, which is devoted to theoretical fundamentals such as the differences between prospective and retrospective memory processes or the specific requirements of event- and time-based, as well as complex and habitual prospective memory tasks, as well as a common part C, which contains the summary discussion of the main results from all four contributions. Finally, it becomes clear that prospective remembering is by no means a memory function of its own, but rather a conglomerate of many different cognitive processes.

6. Nicole Siegwald (delegated to Dr. Birgit Träuble)

Conceptual knowledge as a basis for generalizing reasoning in seven month old infants

7. Tetiana Stadneytska

Stationarity Violation in ARMA Models: A Simulation Study
Stationarity is a necessary prerequisite for modeling processes using the Box & Jenkins ARMA method. Many psychological time series are non-stationary. Unsteady processes can be modeled according to corresponding transformations that produce steadiness. Choosing the right transformation method requires knowledge of the cause of the non-stationarity of the time series to be analyzed. Most often, the non-stationarity is caused by a stochastic drift or a deterministic time trend. Drifting time series are made stationary by subtraction and trending time series by polynomial subtraction. In the case of empirical time series, the exact cause of the non-stationarity is usually unknown and is determined with the help of unit root tests. The present work confirms the inadequate strength of the unit root tests known from the literature. It is shown that the risk of assuming a wrong cause for the non-stationarity of an empirical time series is very great. Based on 6000 Monte Carlo experiments it is documented that the application of an incorrect transformation method leads to a strong distortion of the actual process parameters. The deviations of the estimates from the true parameters are particularly large if drifting time series are transformed by polynomial subtraction. In addition, it is shown that the application of a correct transformation to establish stationarity only ensures accurate parameter estimates that are true to expectations if the length of the time series is sufficiently large. You have to reckon with around 100 measurement times per parameter.

8. Vera Steiger (delegated to Dr. Lisa Irmen)

On the history of the generic masculine
The explanations of this diploma thesis deal with the historical development of the generic masculine, in particular with its origin, implementation and use as a linguistic convention in German. An excursus into the history of grammatical theories of pleasure from antiquity to the 20th century shows that the conceptualization and use of the generic masculine is not a mere formality, but an expression of the zeitgeist and epoch-specific, socio-cultural conditions. The generic masculine is based on the patriarchal, ideological principle of the superiority of the masculine gender and its simultaneous correspondence in socio-legal reality. The historical findings presented here thus support the results of psycholinguistic research, according to which the generic definition of the masculine does not correspond to a genuinely generic, i.e. gender-abstracting cognitive representation.

9. John of Tiling

Applications of social constructivism. Critical potential and psychological practice
The present work deals with the relationship between theory and practice of social constructivism ('Social Constructivism', cf. Burr, 2003). First I try to show that its psychological explanations have not yet been exhausted. As exemplified using the terms action, subjectivity and identity, he suffers from an overemphasis on linguistic aspects of human action at the expense of cultural and social ones. I therefore propose an alternative social constructivist conception that, firstly, similar to cultural psychological approaches, is dedicated to a content-related-contextual view of human action, and secondly, in the concept of recognition, believes that it has found a coherent social constructivist motivational concept that also provides a socio-theoretical connection. This connection in turn enables my approach to articulate issues critical of psychology and society better than conventional, for example postmodern, approaches. I therefore propose a variant of 'critical' psychology that tries to make connections between the individual and society visible through the concept of recognition. At the same time, this enables an alternative form of psychological practice, which, as can be observed in mainstream psychology, neither places psychosocial problems one-sidedly in the individual nor unnecessarily imposes the post-modern image of man on those affected, as is usually done in social constructivist practice. These relationships are illustrated above all using the example of psychotherapy.
see also

10. Sebastian Töpfer

Instance-Based Learning: The Influence of Time Pressure and Personality Traits in Complex Problem Solving with the Water Purification Plant Scenario
The complex problem-solving scenario Water-Purification-Plant (WPP) is used in the present diploma thesis to model the instance-based learning theory from Gonzales et al. to check. To do this, two groups play through the scenario several times on two consecutive days with and without time pressure. Three selected personality traits from the NEO-FFI (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience) and previous computer experience flow into the repeated measurement analysis as covariates. In contrast to the findings of Gonzalez et al. there are no significant effects in the covariates. Only in the exploratory analysis by means of individual t-tests of the data does a strong influence of the variable computer previous experience become apparent on both test days. Furthermore, the male participants achieved significantly better values ​​in the WPP on the second day, although the learning gain for male and female participants was almost the same from day 1 to day 2. A qualitative analysis of the data shows no effect for two formed groups that differ in terms of more gains versus more losses in the runs. The analysis of the course curves shows that successful action in the WPP is associated with low neuroticism values. Furthermore, anticipatory action and only slight changes in strategy seem important for good performance in processing the WPP. Based on the empirical data, the IBLT model cannot be regarded as confirmed. The WPP, however, is a well-programmed scenario that offers many opportunities for further exploration.

11. Angelika Treibel

Inventory and perspective of German-language Internet offers for victims of sexual violence: an online survey of those affected
The aim of the present work is to take stock of the possibilities that the Internet offers or can offer to support (adult) victims of sexual violence in their coping process. This is new scientific territory for which there are only a few empirical findings so far. The theoretical part of the thesis is initially about outlining the subject area of ​​"sexual violence". An exhaustive presentation of the subject cannot be the aim here; Rather, it is about giving an overview of the complex topic of "sexual violence" and paying particular attention to those factors that are relevant to the situation of victims of sexual violence. For this purpose, empirical findings from criminology and victimology as well as clinical psychology are presented. Ultimately, it is also about the question of where and in what form victims of sexual violence can find help, and what information is available about the victims' coping behavior. The theoretical part of the work continues in the inventory of the Internet from a psychological point of view. It is about the description of the population of the Federal Republic of Germany Internet users, about possibilities and limits of psychological online help as well as about special features of computer-mediated communication.
The core of the empirical part of the thesis is the online survey of N = 149 victims of sexual violence; The aim of this survey is to find out whether and how victims of sexual violence are reached via the Internet, what wishes and expectations they have for help services on the Internet, and what experiences they have had so far with the Internet in this regard. The consideration focuses on German-language Internet offers. Furthermore, it is fundamentally about the question of whether the questioning is accepted by those affected and what ethical and psychological problems arise. The results provide clues for the structure and content of help and information offers for victims of sexual violence as well as for carrying out future surveys on this topic.


1. Wibke Büttner

Ethnic ambience in Heidelberg restaurants (Master's thesis, in cooperation with the Dr. Rainer Wild Foundation - Foundation for Healthy Eating)
From the present work it becomes clear that people go out to eat for different reasons. Practical considerations go hand in hand with aspects of enjoyment. They place different demands on restaurants and their ambience. While one is looking for a very exotic ambience, the other wishes to take an Asian dish in an environment that is adapted to the West. But the perceptions are also different: if one guest perceives the ambience as kitschy, another may enjoy the variety of colors and a third person does not even notice the room in which he is sitting.
It can also be seen that the requirements for the ambience correlate with the type of restaurant. Expectations of an expensive category restaurant differed - understandably - from the expectations of fast food restaurants. It is also clear that there are no specific ideas about how the ambience should be designed. It was often mentioned that the ambience should match the food or convey a touch of the respective country, but how exactly this should happen could not be described.
The focus of the work was on the restaurants and their ambience. The determined results showed tendencies which made it clear that the ambience is one of several criteria for the choice of restaurant. With the guests, the ambience was sometimes a high and sometimes a low priority, depending on the type of restaurant. But it has never been considered more important than the food itself. In general, there were no specific ideas about what the ambience should look like. It should only please and the tastes are known to be different. Therefore, the statements about what was positive and what was negative also varied. The Asian atmosphere was often associated with kitsch. Too much kitsch was noticed negatively, while little kitsch was perceived as pleasant. An ambience that was too western or adapted was also perceived as disturbing.

2. Ruth Gramm (delegated to Dr. Bernhard Croissant)

Psychometric moderator variables in a psychophysiological stress experiment in risk subjects with alcohol consumption