Can blueberries grow in Bangalore's climate

Summary

* Alternaria viticola (Ascomycetes)

Affects mainly young, tender leaf stalks, stalks, fruits and grape stalks with no visible symptoms in old inflorescences [1, 2]. Unripe infected berries can be present alongside ripe uninfected berries if the berry development is uneven across a grape. The fungi can be transmitted as spores on asymptomatic grapes [1]. Spots on the skin of the fruit are likely made up of mycelium and will fall off when the berries reach half their size. The berries appear to develop normally, but may still be infected [2].

Asia: China [3]

Wounds encourage infections, but the pathogen can also enter through natural openings [1]. Infected stems turn brown and dry up, causing the flower buds and young fruits and infected inflorescences to shrink, dry out, and fall off. Infected berries develop dark brown or black spots on the skin that fall off as the berries develop. Can cause heavy fruit and flower fall. The grape stalks, stalks, inflorescences and berries are attacked. Yield losses of 30–50% in China [2].

The only known hosts are Vitis vinifera and some hybrid varieties. Quarantine pest for Australia [3]. The conidia can spread through wind and rain [4].

* Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

The larvae feed on the fruit surface [12], when the larvae have established themselves on a grape, they ignore leaves and remain on the grape [13]

South America: Argentina [14], Bolivia [15, citing others], Brazil, Uruguay [12]. Unsure: South America: Peru; Central America: Panama [15].

Important harmful organism in vineyards and apple orchards in southern Uruguay [13]. Main damage to the grape after the start of ripening. The larvae damage the berries and cover the grapes with silk filaments and excrement [16], secondary fungal infections increase the damage potential [13].

 

* Harrisina brillians (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)

Primarily a leaf eater, but also attacks the grapes [17, 1]. In high populations, older larvae feed on the berries [18]

North America: USA, Mexico [17]

Most important leaf pest in the main wine-growing region of Mexico [19]. In parts of California, the larvae defoliate entire vineyards and wild vines in parks and gardens near rivers and streams [17]. The damage occurs both before and after the harvest. The loss of leaves leads to crop failures and loss of quality (sunburn on the berries) on the grapes. Leaf losses also cause crop losses in the following season [19]. Damage to berries by older larvae promotes grape rot, which destroys the entire grape [18].

Quarantine pest in New Zealand. A complaint was made on table grapes for import into New Zealand [1].

* Marmara gulosa (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)

Larvae form snake mines on leaf spindles and berries of grapevines and live in the fruit. Damage is often difficult to detect [20]. The eggs are laid directly on the fruit, the newly hatched larvae drill into the skin of the fruit. Pupation takes place outside the mines in silk cocoons on the fruits [21]. In the case of grapevines, the grape stalk, stalks and berries are attacked [22].

North America: USA (Arizona, California, Florida, Texas), Mexico; Caribbean: Cuba [21].

No economically significant damage to table grapes or raisins [20]; 5–80% damage from mines on fruits of susceptible citrus crops such as grapefruit, grapefruit, oranges [23], economically important harmful organism in California, Arizona, northern Mexico and Cuba. Causes cosmetic damage, but makes the fruit unsaleable [23]. In California, an outbreak in 1995 caused 80–90% fruit loss in some plants [24].

Citrus is the main host. There is no wintering stage, the development takes place over the entire year with accelerated generation succession in the warm season. Six to eight generations per year with a generation succession of about four weeks from May to November [23]. The identity of the species was only clarified in 2001 [22]. Listed in response to EPPO survey on dangerous alien wine pests.

* Paralobesia viteana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

The eggs are laid on the berries, the larvae feed on and in the berries. Heavily infested grapes can contain a large number of larvae at harvest time. Often whole grapes are woven together [25]. Vitis is the preferred larval host.

North America: USA [25]

Most important wine butterfly in eastern North America [25]. In untreated systems, up to 90% of the fruit is destroyed. First generation larvae weave flower buds or berries together and feed on them or the stalks. Second generation larvae dig into the still green berries and feed internally, a reddish point develops at the entry hole. One larva destroys 2–6 berries. Often several larvae eat within a grape, and they may still be in the grape at harvest time. Infested grapes are often secondary to fungi or Drosophila spp. infected [26].

The species was also led under the species name Endopiza viteana. Quarantine pest in New Zealand. The species can develop 3–4 generations per year [25]. Listed in response to EPPO survey on dangerous alien wine pests.

* Phlyctinus callosus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

The beetles attack the fruit and cause scars on the berry skin [9]. The stalks of individual berries can be eaten off or the entire grape stalk can be damaged so severely that the whole grape dies [28] or the grape size is reduced. The beetles can drill holes in the berries and grape stalks [29].

Africa: South Africa (of course); Oceania (introduced): Australia, New Zealand [9, 27]

One of the most important wine pests in the Western Cape in South Africa [30] and a major plant health pest on table grapes from South Africa [31]. The lesions on the berries make the grapes unsaleable and the infestation leads to complaints and rejections of the goods for export [29, 31]. In New Zealand, the species pests vines in greenhouses. Damaged leaves have feeding holes and frayed leaf edges, young plants can be completely defoliated [33]. The larvae feed on roots and can cause severe damage to young vines in particular (drought stress, stunted growth) [32].

Was objected to on table grapes imported into New Zealand [1] and repeatedly on table grapes imported into the USA [9]. Regular complaints about goods from South Africa since the 1960s. So far not able to establish itself in the northern hemisphere. Quarantine pest in the US and Israel. Listed in response to EPPO survey on dangerous alien wine pests.

* Physalospora baccae (Ascomycetes)

Mainly infects stems, stems and fruits of the grapes. Conidia and ascospores are distributed on grapes by wind, rain and insects. Infections are most likely to occur from the start of ripening to harvest. The infected mummified berries remain on the grape. It is unlikely that all symptom-free and mummified berries will be removed during harvest and packaging [5, 2].

Asia: China, Korea, Japan [2]

Serious damage usually only occurs in wet, warm seasons in poorly managed facilities [5]. Causes rot on the entire grape [6]. Infected stalks develop light brown spots near the fruit. When the discoloration encompasses the stem, it dries up and shrinks, and the fruit and grape stalk begin to attack. In China, infection rates of the fruit of 30% -75% are known [2]. The only known hosts are Vitis vinifera and Vitis ssp. [2].

The information about this mushroom comes from three risk analyzes, the references cited were in Chinese or inaccessible. The identity of the mushroom is unclear. The name Physalospora baccae Cavara is a noun Dubium of unknown use. It is not known whether the pathogen to which this name is applied in Japan and Korea is the same as the European pathogen [2, 6]. Here we consider the Asian and European mushrooms as two different species, pathovars or strains.

* Proeulia auraria (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

The larvae of the genus Proeulia feed on the fruit surface [25] and bore into the fruit of their host plants [34]. Because of the low tolerance to cold, the survival of the larvae is questionable if the grapes are stored for several weeks.

South America: Chile [9]

Most common representative of the genus in Chile. Originally a citrus pest, now a severe pest on grapevines [34]. The larvae feed on buds, flowers, leaves and fruits. They are very voracious and able to destroy large numbers of buds and flowers. In addition, they drill open gallery corridors into fruit [35]. Botrytis rot spreads in the damaged grapes [34]. Also affects hosts that are not found in the species' natural habitat such as Malus and Vitis [9]. The severity of the infestation increases [36] and the species has a high risk of quarantine [37].

Maturing larvae cannot tolerate low storage temperatures over 2–3 weeks. The first overwintering larval stage is hidden in parts of the plant and can withstand temperatures of 6–8 ° C for a month [9]. The species has quarantine status in China, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. P. auraria was objected to 34 times in blueberries in the USA and twice in Japan [38]. Listed in response to EPPO survey on dangerous alien wine pests.

* Retithrips syriacus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

R. syriacus causes severe scarring of the berry skin [39]. Both the adults and the nymphs feed on plant juices and the fruit skin [9].

North America: USA; Africa: Malawi, Tanzania, Tunisia [9], Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Uganda, Somalia, South Africa [40]; Asia: Iraq, India, Israel [9], Sri Lanka [129], Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Turkey, United Arab Emirates [40]; South America: Brazil [41]; Caribbean: Puerto Rico [42]. Introduced in at least Guadeloupe [43], Florida, Puerto Rico [44] and Tunisia [40].

Devastating pest on grapevines in Andhra Pradesh, India. Both the harvest volume and the quality are impaired [45]. The leaves of the host wither or fall off, the fruits scar at the places where they have been eaten and are contaminated with excreta [39]. Important wine pest also in Israel [9] and Brazil [46].

Objected to offshoots of Jatropha in Puerto Rico [44].

* Rhipiphorothrips cruentatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

Affects flowers and developing berries that develop a cork-like layer and turn brown [2]. The species is usually clearly visible on the fruit and should be easily recognized during inspections [9], but individual adults or nymphs can also be hidden within the grape [1].

Asia: India, China, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Taiwan [48], Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Oman, Thailand [1].

One of the most important wine pests in India [1]. In India widespread in all main wine-growing regions and with severe harmful effects [2]. Affected leaves turn brown and fall off prematurely. Infested berries develop a cork-like layer.

Vitis vinifera is the main host [47]. It is currently unclear whether this species is a vector. R. cruentatus develops 5–8 generations in India [2]. Natural enemies have a decisive influence on population development [47]. The species can spread over long distances with the wind. Reproduction is predominantly sexual, but the females can parthenogenetically produce males [1].

* Xanthomonas campestris pv. Viticola (Xanthomonadales)

Symptoms develop on petioles, grape stalks, and stalks of grapes. Brown to black lesions develop on the berries; heavily infected berries are small and wrinkled [7]. The bacteria can be on asymptomatic berries [8].

South America: Brazil; Asia: India [3], Thailand (uncertain) [8], Europe: Ukraine (unconfirmed) [9].

In heavily infected vineyards in India there are losses of 60–80% [7]. Causes leaf rot, stem and stem cancer and extensive leaf death. In addition, changes in the color and size of the berries and necrotic lesions reduce the yield and quality of the grapes. Currently the most important wine disease in Brazil [10]

Quarantine pest for Australia [3]. The pathogen spreads through rain or irrigation, but mainly through infected plant material and work materials (clothing, cutting tools) [10]. The introduction to Brazil probably took place via infected 'Red Globe' plants from India [11,8].

* Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

Both eggs and larvae can be carried along with the grapes. Adults were successfully raised from infected table grapes in the field [49]. The eggs are laid on or in the fruit [50], the larvae develop inside the fruit. In the EU, objections were made to citrus, Diospyrus kaki, Magnifera indica and Psidium guajava, among others. Unclear whether the species infects undamaged fruits of all host plants. In this work a potential association with the grape is assumed.

Africa: on the mainland almost all of the evidence, plus Madagascar, Mauritius, Reunion, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Madeira (Portugal), Canary Islands (Spain) [27], Comoros [9]. Asia: India, Iran, Israel, Saudi Arabia [28], Lebanon (2009, [51]), Jordan [52], Iraq, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan [53], United Arab Emirates [9]; Azerbaijan [53]. South America: Argentina, Brazil (1998), Uruguay [28]; Ecuador, Peru [54]; Venezuela [53]; North America: Canada (Ontario, Quebec, initial record, unclear whether the species can overwinter and establish itself there [55]); Mexico (2002); USA (2005) (first in the south, then spreading to the north [56, 9]); Central America: Panama (2003); Caribbean: Reports for Cayman Islands [cited in 53]. Europe: unclear status: mainland Spain: [57], unconfirmed: Italy and Austria [27].

Z. indianus is often associated with damaged or fallen rotting fruits, but the species is also able to invade figs [55], Malphigia emarginata and Dimocarpus longan [58]. Crop losses have also been reported in Virginia vineyards ([60] citing others). In the case of grapevines in Michigan, it is still unclear whether the species is itself a pest or whether it only affects damaged fruit [49]. If the effects on the viticulture industry are still unclear, Z. indianus is regarded as a "potentially destructive" grape pest [60]. There are records of the infestation of ripening Punica granatum and Eriobotrya japonica [55]. In Brazil, Z. indianus caused 40% crop losses in figs after the introduction [61]. Ripening peaches were attacked in Brazil [56].

In the EU complaints about fruits of Citrus aurantium, Citrus paradisi, Diospyrus kaki (so far no confirmed host), Magnifera indica and Psidium guajava. Additionally to Passiflora edulis without naming the type of goods ([62] with reference to EUROPHYT data). Z. indianus is very adaptable. In Brazil, a single introduction was followed by rapid distribution [61] and subsequent expansion within South and North America.

Accuminulia buscki (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

The larvae bore into the berries [3] and were objected to on table grapes [63].

South America: Chile [63]

Little information about damage available so far.The species is viewed as a "potential future pest problem" for Chile [34]. Cepeda [64] describes occasional economic damage and relevance as a quarantine pest. The species has already led to the rejection of goods [38].

Objected to table grapes [63] and Vaccinium [38]. A. buscki has expanded its host plant range to include cultivated plants (Prunus, Vitis) that are not originally native to Chile [63].

Aleurolobus taonabae (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

Both adults and nymphs could be imported with table grapes as they suck the juice from the berries. Adults and nymphs feed on ripening grapes [2]. The nymphs remain at the source of food for pupation and until the adults hatch [65].

Asia: China, Japan, India, Taiwan [65]

In China, three generations develop each year. The eggs overwinter on hawthorn and hatch in the following spring. The first generation adults appear in late May and leave the hawthorn to lay eggs on the leaves of grapevines. The nymphs mainly feed on grape leaves. The adults and some nymphs suckle on ripening grapes. The damage leads to both a reduced harvest volume and a loss of quality [65]. Honeydew favors the growth of fungi [66]. Whiteflies are considered to be the main pests of tropical and subtropical cultures, as well as cultures under protected conditions in temperate climates [67].

Quarantine pest in Australia.

Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

The larvae feed inside the fruit and are usually found in dried up or rotting berries inside the grape. The eggs are usually laid in cracks on the ripening fruit or under bud scales. The larvae are mostly located in berries that would not be packaged because of the quality requirements [17]. Unsure whether the species can be carried along with table grapes.

North America: Mexico; UNITED STATES; Central America: Costa Rica; South America: Brazil [17], Argentina [68]. Canada [72], unconfirmed. Absent in the EU: Apparently only objected to in Italy [69]. Introduced in Austria [70], not established. In the Fauna Europea [71] Germany ("present") is also mentioned (presumably objection). Despite the uncertainty, we assume here that the pest has not yet settled in Europe.

No data available for damage to grapes. A. transitella is an important pest on nut fruits (almonds, walnuts, pistachios) and also damages citrus fruits [72]. The species is the most important pest in pistachio cultivation [73] and the most important insect pest in almond cultivation [74]. Also vector for Aspergillus flavus in almond cultivation [75].

Complaints about fresh oranges and walnuts from the USA in Korea [76]. A. transitella is notifiable in Australia and is considered a risk organism [72].

Argyrotaenia citrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

The eggs can be on fruits, the larvae feed on developing fruits [77]. Larvae of later generations feed on the surface of the berries [17]. The larvae weave a nest between the grapes, weaving in the berries, stems and also leaves [78]. The conspicuous webs should be easily discovered during harvest and packaging [17]. Nevertheless, the species has already been objected to in table grapes.

North America: Canada, western USA [78], Mexico [17]

Occasional damage to viticulture in California [78] with up to 25% crop loss. The damage is caused by the larvae feeding on the grapes and by favoring putrefactive germs [17]. The overwintering larvae also attack buds and young shoots. In plants that are treated against Cydia pomonella, the populations usually remain small. However, A. citrana can cause noticeable damage even at low densities. The species is a major pest in apple cultivation in the USA [79].

A. citrana was objected to on table grapes in New Zealand [1]. A complaint was made in Japan (type of goods unclear, [80]). The species is uni- or bivoltine [77].

Argyrotaenia velutinana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

The larvae create a web within the grapes, eat holes in the berries and feed on the grape stalks [81]

North America: Canada, USA [82]

Heavy infestation is the exception in viticulture, only a few infected grapes are found each year. In apple cultivation, larval feeding causes fruit rot and premature fruit fall. Considered the worst apple pest in the eastern USA in the middle of the 20th century, today it is largely under control through integrated pest management measures [25].

Principal host Malus and other rosaceae [25].

Brevipalpus chilensis (Acarida: Tenuipalpidae)

eats on fruits, leaves and stems. The species is known to be associated with table grapes and was objected to in table grapes from Chile to the USA [34]. Nevertheless, the CABI CPC states that the type of cultivar for table grapes (apart from some old red varieties) is practically not infested and that the grapes can be harvested without the mite having mobile life stages. It is unclear whether the species can be carried along with table grapes.

South America: Chile (natural)

B. chilensis is an important pest of various horticultural crops in Chile and is able to cause relevant production losses of marketable fruits. B. chilensis is a very destructive pest on vineyards. The attack first occurs on the leaves and then spreads to the grapes [34]. Grapevines are the most affected fruit crops, especially red cultivars for wine production [9], with damage of up to 30% [3] or 30–40% [83]. Apart from a few exceptions (the black cultivar “Ribier”), no economic damage has been observed in plants for the production of table grapes [9].

Quarantine pest in the USA [84] and New Zealand [3]. Complaints about lemons from Chile [9]. The fear of a possible importation of fruits is put into perspective by the cooling of table grapes and lemons during transport over mostly 3–4 weeks. The mites are active all year round on citrus fruits, while the animals become inactive on vine plants, kiwis and other foliage-bearing crops [9]. Listed in response to EPPO survey on dangerous alien wine pests.

Carpophilus davidsoni (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

The adult beetles feed on fresh or dried fruits [85]. Some authors report that, apart from peaches, nectarines and apricots, only fallen fruits are attacked in crops ([86], refers to the genus Carpophilus). Other authors note that C. davidsoni prefers fruits in the early stages of ripening [87]. C. davidsoni was objected to in relation to table grapes and, despite uncertainty, is considered here to be associated with table grapes.

Oceania: New Zealand (introduced, [88]), Australia [89]

One of the worst pests in stone fruit cultivation in southern Australia with crop losses of more than 20% [85]. Harvest losses of 30% in peaches, nectarines and apricots, plus vector for Monilinia spp. in Australia [90]. An increasing problem in almond production in Australia since 2013 (larvae and adults in the almonds) [87]. The economic importance of the species has increased since the 1950s [91]. The host plant range of the genus Carpophilus has expanded and the genus now also damages cherries and strawberries [87]. The genus is difficult to control with insecticides because the animals do not attack the crops until harvest time [92].

Objected on table grapes to New Zealand [1]. Vector for Monilinia spp. and other microorganisms [85]. The pest has several characteristics that favor the spreading and establishment with imported fruits. Rotting fruits offer ideal development conditions and the adult animals are very good fliers [86]. The species can have many generations per year and can overwinter as fully grown larvae, pupae or adults [87].

Cotinis nitida (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)

The adults feed on ripening or ripe fruits in groups. The beetles are up to 2.5 cm long. They react very strongly to attractive attractants. They are attracted by undamaged grapes, but to a greater extent by damaged grapes and their conspecifics, as well as the aggregation pheromones of their conspecifics. The strongest attraction is developed by damaged grapes with conspecifics and Popilia japonica [93]. The large beetles should be easily spotted and removed at harvest, but if strong attractants are present, they could return to the crop. Uncertain whether table grapes are a relevant route of distribution, but the species was objected to on table grapes in New Zealand [1].

North America: USA [94]

Important wine pest, predominantly in the southern part of the USA. In years with severe infestation, the adults can destroy almost the entire harvest by direct feeding damage. The species is considered to be the most important wine pest at harvest time in Kentucky [96]. C. nitida damages the grape by eating ripening or ripe berries. The animals have a horn on their head with which they can penetrate undamaged fruits. The smell of the animals and their excrement can ruin the grapes, even if the direct feeding damage is minor [96]. Hammons et al. [93] state that C. nitida is not able to damage undamaged fruits on its own and that its strong economic importance in North America only came about through the introduction of the invasive Popilia japonica. P. japonica (EU Annex I / A2, recently introduced to Italy) initially damages the fruits and attracts C. nitida through the smell of the damaged fruits and aggregation pheromones. C. nitida is a common pest of most fruit crops in the American Midwest [96].

The species was objected to on table grapes from New Zealand [1].

Dichocrocis punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

On wine the adults lay the eggs one by one on stalks. The larvae bore into the stalks or feed on the berries. The larvae weave several berries together and feed on them. Pupation takes place in the feeding tunnels [1].

Asia: China, India, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Taiwan [27], Bangladesh, Burma [8]; Oceania: Australia, Papua New Guinea [27]. Mostly in the subtropics, but also in Hokkaido (Northern Japan) and Northern China [99]. Unsure: Asia: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, South Korea, Laos, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam (one publication). Doubtful information: Pakistan (only objection, [99]). Great Britain [71], complaint only [99].

The damage is caused by the larvae burrowing into the stems, shoots, buds, fruits and seeds of many plants. Additional damage is caused by the increased susceptibility to secondary infections [100]. One of the most important peach insects and a major corn pest in southern China. Important pest on apples in North China [9]. D. punctiferalis can develop very high population densities through several generations per year. The excreta have a high sugar content and promote secondary infection by other insects or pathogens [97]. Vitis vinifera is a minor host [9].

The species was often objected to on fruits from different countries in Great Britain (18 complaints 2007–2012 to Annona sqamosa, Magnifera indica, Psidium) and the Netherlands [99]. Over 100 complaints of D. punctiferalis by the USA [100]. D. punctiferalis is a poorly defined species complex and there is confusion in the literature about the identity of the species studied in each case [99]. The species complex consists of at least two species. A polyphagous form that feeds on fruits and various plant families and a food specialist on pinaceae in Japan and China [1]. The species is subject to phytosanitary regulations in New Zealand [97], the USA [8] and Canada [98].

Naupactus xanthographus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

The adults feed on fruits superficially [9]. Objected to table grapes [34]. The adults are flightless and not very mobile.

South America: Argentina, Chile, Uruguay [27]. Introduced into Chile including the Easter Islands and Juan Fernandez [9]. The occurrences in Brazil and Paraguay are not sufficiently documented.

N. xanthographus attacks deciduous fruit crops such as grapevines and peaches. In Uruguay, the damage is minor. In Chile, where the species was introduced, it is one of the most important pests on grapevines (literature from the 1980s-1990s, [9]). The larvae feed on the roots, the adults feed on the surface of leaves and fruits [34]. In addition, the fruits are contaminated with excrement. Vitis vinifera is the main host.

The adults are flightless and can be hidden in the grapes. Beetles of this species were objected to on table grapes from Chile to the USA and Peru [34]. Quarantine pest in the United States, Canada, and Jordan. Female beetles are able to lay eggs for up to 6 months without males [34]. Listed in response to EPPO survey on dangerous alien wine pests.

Nipaecoccus viridis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

eats on table grapes on the outside [6]

Africa: widespread including Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles; North America: Bahamas, Mexico, USA, In Florida for the first time in 2009 [101]; Asia: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Malaysia, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam; Oceania: Australia, Guam, Kiribati, New Caledonia, Northern Mariana Islands, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu [27].

Damaged up to 5% in two vineyards in Bangalore, India. N. viridis was found in Hawaii