What month is Hajj performed?
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The pilgrimage [hajj] to Mecca is a unique, compulsory rite for every Muslim who is able to do so. It belongs to the five pillars of Islam and to the branches of the religion [furu'ad-din].
The pilgrimage time is the last month called Dhul-Hijah in the Islamic calendar (cf. Holy Qur'an 2: 197).
According to religious law, the pilgrimage is a compilation of a number of specific individual rites. The Hajj has a high position in both the compulsory and the recommended part and leads to great rewards. Many statements about their position were narrated by the Prophet Muhammad (s.) And his Ahl-ul-Bait (a.). Imam Sadiq (a.) Said:
"The pilgrim and the pilgrim are guests of Allah. When they ask Him, He gives them, and when they call Him, He answers them, and when they plead for intercession, He gives them intercession, and even when they are silent, he begins He nevertheless to give them. And every dirham (which they spend on the pilgrimage) will be repaid to them with a million dirhams. "
According to the Holy Qur'an, Prophet Muhammad (s.) Himself calls for pilgrimage (cf. Holy Qur'an 22:27).
A religious adult can make the pilgrimage either for himself or on behalf of another. There are differences in the obligations to go on a pilgrimage depending on whether you are a Mecca inhabitant or a foreigner (see Table 1).
Table 1: Types of pilgrimage
The pilgrimage for foreign pilgrims consists of the two parts "aspiration pilgrimage" and the "pilgrimage". Both together are called "aspiration pilgrimage".
For the religious adult who fulfills the ability to pilgrimage, pilgrimage is a duty once in a lifetime, which he can also fulfill with a substitute pilgrimage if necessary. This obligation must be met as soon as possible, once the requirements are met, and it is not allowed to postpone it for no reason. The prerequisites to be fulfilled are:
- Understanding or reason; the mentally handicapped is not obliged.
- Religious maturity
- Being able to go on pilgrimage
with their respective definitions and details.
The aspiration pilgrimage consists of two sets of actions. The first is the pilgrimage [umrah], which ideally should be done first, and the second is the pilgrimage itself. For each of these two there are specific actions.
The acts of aspiration pilgrimage are:
- Consecration status [ihram] from one of the consecration sites [miqat]
- Ritual prayer of circling [salat-ul-tawwaf]
- Shorten [taqsir]
The acts of aspiration pilgrimage are:
- State of consecration from Mecca
- Linger in Arafat
- Lingering in al-Mash’ar-ul-Haram (at Muzdalifah)
- Throwing the rock of Aqaba
- Sacrifice (in mina)
- Completely cutting off or shortening the hair
- Remain the night of the 11th of the pilgrimage month in Mina
- Throwing the three rocks on the 11th day
- Stay in Mina the night of the 12th
- Throwing the three rocks on day 12
- Orbiting for pilgrimage
- Ritual prayer of circling [salat-ul-tawwaf] for the pilgrimage
- Orbiting because of women
- Ritual prayer of circling [salat-ul-tawwaf] because of women
All rites of pilgrimage reflect the human striving for perfection and can be traced back directly or indirectly to Abraham (a.).
Image: The pilgrimage sites
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