What are some facts about Muslims
#wtf ?! "Islam - Facts and Prejudices"
The most important book in Islam is the Koran. It is considered the literal message of Allah, the God of Muslim believers. The Koran is divided into so-called suras, something like chapters. The individual suras tell old stories or contain rules that prescribe how Muslims should behave - for example, honor God and do good.
Sunnis & Shiites
Shiites and Sunnis are the two largest faiths in Islam. Both are fighting over the successor to the Prophet Mohammed. The majority of believers (Sunnis) wanted to freely choose a suitable candidate at that time. The minority (Shiites), on the other hand, demanded that the successor must come from Mohammed's family and decided on his cousin Ali.
In Islam, prayer in the mosque is led by an imam - he turns his face towards Mecca and has his back to the visitors. He recites the prayer in Arabic. He honors Allah. Then he talks about a chosen topic. An imam does not need to have any special training, but is mostly someone who knows a lot about his religion.
Caliphate or hilafa means “representation”. It is a form of government that has its roots in the 7th century. It developed in the Muslim state of the time after the death of the Prophet Mohammed. The caliph was seen in the leadership of the community as the successor of the prophet. He spoke rightly, made political decisions and gave everyday advice on how to live.
Jihad meant the militant engagement of every Muslim believer in the activities of the Prophet against Arab tribes and urban factions that opposed monotheistic Islam and the recognition of Muhammad's role as a prophet. Jihad is never war in the usual sense. Rather, it is about a “worship under arms”.
Since the 10th century, all large mosques have had at least one minaret. The muezzin calls to prayer five times a day from his outer gallery; today, however, the call is usually made via loudspeaker. The first minarets were modeled on ancient grave and watchtowers.
Salafism (Arabic: Salafiyya) is an ultra-conservative movement within Sunni Islam. He represents a return to the ancestors. At the beginning of the 20th century, Salafiyya was considered reform-oriented. Meanwhile, her followers pursue the fundamentalist goal of elevating the manners and customs of the 7th century to the maxim for the life of all Muslims.
Once in a lifetime Muslim believers should undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca ("Hajj") if they are physically and financially able to do so. Up to three million believers meet there every year and go around the Kaaba, an important shrine of Islam, seven times. They believe that this is a remnant of the original temple. According to tradition, God ordered Abraham and his son Ishmael to build the Kaaba.
The Arabic word umma denotes the community of all Muslims worldwide, regardless of ethnic or linguistic affiliation. In this way, Islam as a unifying bond replaces earlier identities such as tribe, clan or people, at least in theory. The ideal of this unity has been put to a severe test at least since the emergence of the nation states.
Muslim believers are not allowed to eat pork - this is prescribed by the Koran. Only ruminating ungulates with “split claws”, i.e. even ungulates, are allowed. Cattle, sheep and goats are halal (the Arabic word for pure). In Islam it is generally forbidden to eat meat from animals that have died naturally. Blood may not be eaten or drunk either.
The "Islamic State" is an Islamist terrorist organization whose members are committed to a radical interpretation of Sunni Islam. The Islamic State currently controls parts of Syria and Iraq. Here the organization proclaimed a caliphate on June 29, 2014. The number of IS fighters is only estimated.
Believers should fast about 30 days a year. So from daybreak to sunset it is forbidden to eat, drink, smoke or have sex. The so-called Ramadan is supposed to be a month of inner contemplation and reflection. Sick people, breastfeeding women and travelers are exempt from this, but should make up for it later. Small children usually do not fast either. At the end of Ramadan, the Sugar Festival is celebrated, an important festival in Islam.
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