Who is the King of Pataliputra

National Institute of Informatics - Digital Silk Road Project
Digital Archive of Toyo Bunko Rare Books

v. Chr. 558-529 Cyrus, the Achaemenid; conquers Babylon and v. Around 139 BC the Persian Empire was founded.

557 Probable date of Sid's birth approx. 126

Gautama, later the Buddha


dhartha or Sakyamuni.

551-475 Confucius.

528 Siddhartha becomes a hermit, takes the Buddha

shank on.

500 Darius Hystaspes, the Achaemenid, king of

514-486 Srenika Bimbisära, King of Magadha. 486-461 His son, Konika Ajataäatru, king of Magadha.

485-465 Xerxes, the Achaemenid, king of Persia; 48o Thermopylae.

477 death (parinirvána) of Sakyamuni Buddha; first

Buddhist Council on Rajagriha.


377 Second Council of Vaisàli.

326 Alexander the Great falls after the conquest

West and East Iran in India.

325-280 Seleukos Nikator; receives when Alex divides

different kingdoms of Babylon, Syria and Persia. 315-297 Chandragupta (sand rakottos); founds the Maur

ya empire in india.

305 Seleucus invades Bactria and India; he-
forces tribute and alliance from Chandragupta. His messenger is Megasthenes.


297-263 Bindusara successor of Chandragupta; Dei-machos envoy of Seleucus.

272-235 moka; Installed in 269, third king of the Maurya dynasty. Beginning of Indian art.

256 Uprising of Bactia against Antiochus II. Theos,
under Diodotus.

approx. 25o-245 Diodotus I, king of Bactria (the dates of the Bactrian kings are disputed).

about 25o Arsakes founds the Parthian Empire.
approx. 245-230 Diodotus II, King of Bactria.

242 Third Council of Pataliputra; Buddhist
Missions to Ceylon, Gandhara, Kashmir, etc.

230 (220) -200 The adventurer Euthydemos of Magnesia usurps rule in Bactria and extends Greek power in India.

approx. 230 erection of the "Great Wall of China" against the
Incursions of the northern nomads into China.

2o6 beginning of the Han dynasty of China (ends 223 AD)
Chr.). Temporary sovereignty of China over East Turkistan.


approx. 200-180 Demetrios king of Bactria and Sagala (Sialkot f) in Punjab.

approx. 18o Eukratides extended the Greek rule in
Punjab and in Bactria.

approx. 584 The Sunga dynasty of Pusyamitra in India

approx. 176 The Yüe-6i (Scythians) expelled from western China.
156-536 Heliocles, last Greek king in Bactria.

145 The Greek Menander (Pali: Milinda) king of
Sagala in the Punjab. (His transition to Buddhism cannot be doubted.)

140 Approximate date of the Gates of Sanchi.

Mithridates of Parthia overthrows the Greco-Bactrian Empire.

Conquest of Bactria by the Indo-Scythians (Saken and Yüe-ői). Mission of the Chinese Chan-Kien to the YU-di.

Defeat of the Hiong-nu (Huns) by the Han emperor Wu-ti.

Syria becomes a Roman province.

The city of Chotscho was founded in the Turfan oasis.

approx. 3o the Kusana tribe of the Indo-Scythians conquered

Approximate date of the creation of the Gandhara art.

67 The Han emperor receives Ming-ti of China

  • Buddhist missionaries; Beginning of the introduction of Buddhism in China.

approx. 93 expulsion of the Huns from East Asia. Display
Lich advance of the Chinese General Panchao as far as Transoxiana.

Buddhist Council on jalandhara.

Indian envoy to Emperor Trajan.

(Much controversial date!) Kaniska the Kusan king rules over Northwest India (probably also over the Hexapolis of East Turkistan, Chotan, Yarkand, Käschghar, Maralbaschi etc. Presumed date of the Gandhara temple at Tumschuq near Maralbaschi.)

approx. 53o emergence of the Buddhist cave temples from

538 Indian envoy to Emperor Antoninus Pius.
150-2ooNagärjuna, founder of the Mahayana school.

approx. 570 construction of the railing of the Stüpa of Amra-
dad and the older cave temples of Kanheri.


226 Ardaschir Päbakan founds the Sassanid Dy
nastie of persia.

260 Emperor Valerian of Schapür, the Sassanid,

264 Odenathus King of Palmyra. Blossom of the palmyre
niche empire.

approx. 242-273 Effectiveness of Mani, the founder of the dualistic mixed religion of the Manicheans. Elements: Zoroaster belief, Christianity and Buddhism. His execution by the Sassanid Bahrain I. 273. Cruel persecution of the sect.

273 Fall of Palmyra, capture of the queen


319 Establishment of the Gupta dynasty in India
Chandragupta I.

334 A Christian bishop in Merw.

360-371 battles of Shapűr II with the Romans; his death


372 Introduction of Buddhism in Korea.

399-414 Travels of the Chinese Buddhist Fa-hian in Turkistan, India and Ceylon.

Approx. 30 BC Gondophares reigns in Gandhara.