How can I practice civil disobedience?
15 examples of civil disobedience (that made a difference)
It is not enough to believe in something. You have to be ready to stand up for something if you want change.
- Edward Snowden
The situation looks dire and it seems like there is nothing you or I can do.
This is a dilemma that doesn't just affect our time. History can show us the way to those who have felt exactly the same way. Everyday people who were forced by injustice to act and challenge those in power.
It is our right and our moral obligation to protest against unjust political, economic or social conditions. Many of the rights we take for granted are the result of protests - human rights, women's rights, workers' rights.
It has always been a struggle to make change, but that is achievable.
What is civil disobedience?
Civil disobedience is the active, nonviolent refusal to accept government dictates. He lets the rulers know that one will stand in the way of unjust action and that the people will break laws if necessary.
Civil disobedience causes disruption and attention while at the same time forcing a debate aimed at bringing about fundamental and progressive changes within our societies and our world.
Acts of civil disobedience do not have to be extreme. We can all be activists. Small actions can lead to bigger ones and inspire individuals who may not be sure where to turn with their worries. This, in turn, can help pave the way for further understanding and global change.
The following fifteen examples of civil disobedience span nearly a century. From the one-on-one action by a young woman in Montgomery to the mass protests of thousands of people in Scotland and Sudan, all of these protesters are united in their demand for justice and a better world.
1. Fight for women's suffrage: UK 1928
Considered the inferior sex, women have no voting rights, no power, and no say in how their world is governed. In the face of this injustice, women fight back.
Actions instead of words.
The British struggle for women's suffrage (statutory suffrage) included groups from the women's labor movement and the moderate, non-confrontational National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies (NUWSS). Believing in civil disobedience, the NUWSS disrupted parliament, chained itself to railings, distributed leaflets, and organized demonstrations and lectures.
The more militant Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) was ready to use any tactic necessary. This often involved violent, direct action.
After they were arrested, the women's rights activists resisted by going on a hunger strike.
Although suffragettes are often portrayed as belonging to the ruling class, thousands of courageous working class women have made great personal sacrifices for the movement, with their punishments often more barbaric than those of women of higher social rank.
Not all women could afford to make such a sacrifice. Many had to earn a living or worked long shifts as servants or in factories, only to come home and look after the children and do the household chores.
The Representation of the People Act of 1918 gave women over 30 years of age the right to vote in Great Britain. The full right to vote, i.e. the right to vote at the age of 21 and above, and thus to equal the right to vote for men, was passed in 1928.
The suffragettes in Britain triumphed after years of protest, struggle and unimaginable hardship. Every woman chose her role, and every role was important.
Thirty-five years earlier, in 1893, the women of New Zealand were the first to win the right to vote. Saudi Arabia granted women the right to vote in 2015. A revolution can last for decades, but when it does come it can have a profound effect on the course of history.
Laws for women - written by men and passed by men. Public domain.
2. The Salt Marsh: India 1930
Forced to pay inflated prices for the essential salt, thousands of Indians follow one man on the long road to victory and independence.
Law versus power
The Salt Act of 1882 prohibited the Indian people from collecting, producing and selling salt under British rule. The poor suffered most because they could not afford to buy the highly taxed salt, a mineral that is vital to human metabolism in hot, humid climates. Those who broke the law were imprisoned.
Mahatma Gandhi left his ashram in Sabarmati on March 12, 1930 with 78 followers to go with tens of thousands of others on the 240-mile march to the Arabian Sea.
By picking up salt from the ground in the coastal town of Dandi on April 6, he openly violated British law. Gandhi started the Satyagrahi, a philosophy of truth-finding and non-violent non-cooperation.
As part of the civil disobedience movement, thousands more followed Gandhi's lead, and salt was illegally produced, bought and sold across India. 60,000 peaceful demonstrators were arrested, including Gandhi himself, further raising global awareness of the situation in India.
The salt march and the resulting civil disobedience movement shook the foundations of the British Empire and marked a turning point on the road to Indian independence in 1947. It was a simple but challenging act of civil disobedience that people engage in with conviction and courage against a huge world power.
Gandhi collects salt on the Gujarat coast. April 1930. Public domain.
3. Racial insurgency: USA 1955-56
When an African American schoolgirl is ordered to give up her seat to a white woman, the abolitionists give her the strength to stay where she is.
I found history very exciting
At the age of 15, Claudette Colvin became the first African American woman to refuse to cede her seat to a white woman on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama.
Colvin said she felt held down in the hands of abolitionists Harriet Tubman and Sojourner Truth. She was dragged off the bus and subjected to sexist and racist behavior before being arrested and held in an adult prison.
After Rosa Parks was arrested for the same behavior nine months later, the Women's Political Council (WPC), a group of black women campaigning for civil rights, distributed 50,000 leaflets calling for a boycott of Montgomery bus routes. As news of the boycott spread, African American leaders began to express their support across Montgomery.
From December 5, 1955 to December 20, 1956, approximately 40,000 African Americans refused to ride buses in Montgomery. While many walked, car pooling was also organized and the city's African-American taxi drivers charged African-American passengers the price of a bus ticket.
The protesters were determined to continue their protests until the city complied with their demands, which included hiring black bus drivers and a "first-come, first-seat" policy. Finally, a group of five women from Montgomery sued the city in the US District Court for the desegregation laws to be repealed altogether.
In December 1956, the US Supreme Court ruled Alabama racial segregation laws unconstitutional (even though it did not apply to interstate buses). The process that ended the boycott relied in part on the testimony of Claudette Colvin.
Numerous other mass actions would follow, including the 1961 Freedom Riders and 1963 The Birmingham Children's Crusade, which resulted in hundreds of demonstrators being assaulted, arrested and jailed.
It was not until 1964 that segregation was banned with the repeal of the Jim Crow laws by the Civil Rights Act.
4th Wave Hill Strike: Australia 1966-1975
Two hundred people have turned their backs on the abuse and settled on their ancestral lands. They refuse to leave and demand the lawful return of the land to the indigenous people.
Without the land we are nothing
Gurindji Elder Vincent Lingiari led two hundred ranching workers away from the privately owned Wave Hill cattle station in the Northern Territory in protest of low wages, poverty and decades of abuse. The "Walk Off Mob" formed a new settlement in Daguragu and refused an eviction order. The strike lasted seven years.
Lingiari's ongoing lobbying of politicians fueled the strike and won the support of non-indigenous Australians. This paved the way for new land rights legislation almost ten years later, when in 1975 3300 square kilometers of Australian land was returned to the Gurindji Tribe for the first time.
In 1976 the Aboriginal Land Rights (Northern Territory) Act was signed, which allows indigenous peoples to claim land of traditional and spiritual importance.
An action for workers' rights that leads to a victory in land tenure rights.
5. The Sip-in: USA 1966
Four men enter a bar and ask to be served. Denied service because they are gay - the men risk arrest to ensure their story is reported and passed on.
We are homosexuals
In 1966, New York City prohibited the serving of alcohol to homosexuals. Under an improper conduct law, the city's "clean-up" resulted in the closure of gay bars and the arrest of gay customers by police. As a result, many lives were destroyed.
Dick Leitsch, a key figure in the fight for gay rights, came with three friends from the Mattachine Society - John Timmins, Randy Wicker and CraigRodwell - in Julius' Bar in Greenwich Village, professed his homosexuality and demanded to be served become. It is believed that this was the first organized act of civil disobedience by homosexuals.
They were denied operation and the incident was widely reported in the press. Within a year, the New York state courts ended the practice of using homosexual clientele visits as an excuse to revoke alcohol licenses, paving the way for licensed gay bars.
Further actions by Leitsch helped to end this hopeless situation and at the same time to encourage people to challenge charges based solely on police testimony.
Dick Leitsch, 1966. Unknown photographer.
Influenced by the sit-in strikes of black civil rights demonstrators at separate lunch tables, this brilliant example showed how the non-violent, polite behavior of four courageous people led to social change and a redefinition of public perception.
6. Culebra Protests Against the Navy: Puerto Rico 1970
While a world superpower is destroying a tiny island with bombs and bullets, the intrepid residents refuse to give up the fight to recapture their homeland.
Culebra the Culebrans
In 1970 Culebra Islanders made a series of protests against the US Navy over the island's use for military maneuvers.
The Navy expropriated 2,000 of the island's 7,000 acres and turned it into a bomb training area. Houses were demolished and targets set up. A three-mile exclusion zone was established around the island, imprisoning the island's 700 residents. There was hardly any fishing left and the cattle were grazed on Marineland.
LIFE magazine reported on 'the crunch of 500 pound bombs ... the whimper of jets, the echo of machine gun fire, screeching missiles and the triple, throaty roar of underwater grenades.' Protesters said the bombing, often seven days a week, put Culebra in "a deplorable position".
Unwilling to withdraw claims on the entire island, the protesters erected a chapel on Flamingo Beach, a designated main target area, in just three days, using only crude tools. The US marshals ordered them to leave the chapel, but they refused and six people were arrested. Six days later, the navy demolished the chapel.
The protesters illegally occupied restricted areas, including Flamingo Beach, and stayed there for several weeks. Those who needed new houses occupied Marineland, which was also used to build sports fields and cemeteries.
Puerto Rican Independence Party leader and protest leader Rubén Berríos was sentenced to three months in prison in Puerto Rico along with thirteen others for civil disobedience and trespassing.
In 1974, all political parties in Puerto Rico demanded that the US Navy cease operations and leave the island. Finally, in 1974, President Nixon ordered the Navy to leave the island, which it did in December 1975.
Another example of a few hundred brave people standing firm in the shadow of a world superpower.
The Timber trail in Pureora Forest Park, Waikato. Credit: Buffy May
7. The Tree Occupers of Pureora: New Zealand 1978
A group of friends and activists settled in the branches of 1,000-year-old trees while bulldozers and chainsaws worked below them to destroy the forest.
There is no other way
In the 1970s grassroots environmental groups began to focus their actions on the timber industry in New Zealand. The country had lost two thirds of its native forest area through logging since the 19th century. New Zealand logging is an industry that still accounts for 1.1% of the world's total volume of industrial timber and 1.3% of world trade in forest products.
A petition with around 350,000 signatures was submitted to parliament calling for an end to logging and the legal recognition of native forests. Nevertheless, in the 1000 year old forests of Pureora, all wood available on the market should be felled.
During the first ever tree-squatter protest, activists Steven King, Shirley Guildford and others from the Native Forest Action Council led the action against the decimation of the Pureora forest.
The protesters acted quickly and got camping permits for the Walt. They climbed the tops of six totara trees and demanded that Pureora be spared. Platforms and tree houses were erected, and protesters occupied the area and refused to leave. Some blocked access to the trees with their bodies. This final, swift response was crucial in that the protesters got themselves established before the authorities could react.
The result of the protest was that both the public and the government became aware of the destruction of natural habitats, the loss of biodiversity and the fragility of the environment.
This was a small act of civil disobedience, carried out by a few people who knew that petitions and long debates could not dispel bulldozers and chainsaws. It resulted in a government moratorium on logging and eventually the end of the deforestation of native forests in the park and the creation of the Pureora Forest Park in 1978. The Treetop protest platform is still accessible today.
8. Resistance to poisonous mining: Estonia 1987
Students and scientists rise up against the powerful Soviets and fight to rid their country of exploitative and polluting large-scale mines.
Phosphorite - no thanks!
In the 1960s, the Soviet Union began to exploit Estonia's rich phosphorite deposits for the fertilizer industry. During this time, the country's groundwater was contaminated by large-scale fracking (oil shale mining). Hydraulic fracking fluid used in gas recovery is a cocktail of chemicals including biocides, and contaminated "reflux" fluid contains radioactive material. Fracking releases other toxic compounds into the air that have been linked to malformations, neurological damage, and cancer.
In 1987 a local news broadcast educated the Estonian people about the Soviet plans to build a huge phosphorite mine in Virumaa.The Soviet Estonian leadership had been heavily criticized in the past for withholding information, and this news sparked an extensive protest campaign known as the "Phosphorite War".
At first, Soviet censorship silenced protesters' reporting, but the press gradually shook off Communist Party's censorship and supported popular resistance to the phosphorite mine. Scientists from the Estonian Academy of Sciences, led by Endel Lippmaa, warned of the contamination of up to 40 percent of the Estonian water supply.
The protest peaked in the spring of 1987 when courageous students from Tartu University organized two peaceful demonstrations. Posters and T-shirts carried the slogan "Phosphorite - No thanks! Statements and newspaper articles were distributed. Estonian musicians joined the protest and sang songs that became symbols of the struggle.
In autumn 1987, the Estonian leadership agreed with the powerful Soviet government to stop the construction of the mine. This was the first comprehensive protest in Soviet Estonia. He encouraged resistance against the Soviet Union and led to the restoration of Estonia's independence in 1991.
The Phosphorite War was one of the most important milestones in Estonian environmental history. He brought the people of Estonia together with a renewed sense of identity and demonstrated the power of collective action. But above all, he broke the chains of fear.
‘Our little republic cannot be undermined! Played enough games with us! The outrage prevails! '' Letter from an Estonian demonstrator. Credit: Triin Tark.
9. Rejection of the United Kingdom poll tax 1989-1990
In a well-organized wave of unwavering resistance, the UK stands together to fight a discriminatory system imposed by a common enemy - the British government.
Can't Pay! Don't want to pay!
The Community Charge was introduced in Scotland in 1989, a year before England and Wales. It amounted to a single flat tax for every adult, regardless of personal income.
As a result, lower-income households were forced to pay more taxes than higher-income households. It has often been suggested that the billionaire Duke of Westminster would pay the same tax as his chauffeur.
From the day it was introduced, April 1, 1989, the people of Scotland vehemently opposed the poll tax and fought long and hard for its abolition.
On March 31, 1990, 50,000 people marched peacefully through the city center in Glasgow as part of the protests against the poll tax. An organized resistance campaign made it impossible for city councils to enforce the tax, and it was physically impossible for the police to arrest masses of defaulting payers. Blocking housing developments and private homes from court-appointed sheriffs was a central part of the Scottish struggle.
The English and Welsh took inspiration from the battle in Scotland, but it wasn't so peaceful. A London march sparked the worst riots in the city in over a century, with 340 arrests and 113 injured.
Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher was widely criticized for the political and financial disaster and eventually resigned. Her successor, John Major, replaced the community tax with a community tax system, a local tax system based on property value.
By the end of 1990, an estimated 4 million people had refused to pay their poll tax and many of them had spent time in prison. This was a passionate grassroots protest that brought people from all walks of life together. As with the demonstrators before them, some saw resistance as the only option, even if it meant assault, arrest and imprisonment.
Refusing to pay the tax paralyzed the system from within. The machinery stuttered.
Head tax protest. Unknown photographer.
10. Unethical Patent Laws: 1998 - Present
Big corporations are grabbing seeds in an attempt to take control of what we eat. Courageous farmers around the world risk ruin if they refuse to accept this. But small victories can inspire you.
Saving seeds is a political act
As a result of a global legal offensive, farmers who have grown and shared seeds for millennia are quickly being criminalized for their actions.
The ten largest seed companies in the world control three quarters of the commercial seed market. Environment and agriculture activist Vandana Shiva urges refusal to recognize unethical laws that deprive people of the right to save and trade seeds. It does so on the grounds that those who control the world's food control the world.
In this environment the farmers lose their autonomy. You need to buy seeds that are determined by seed companies. Terminator seeds, for example, are genetically engineered to become sterile after the first germination. It is expensive and requires herbicides and fertilizers, which corporations provide at a huge cost. In the following year the farmer has to buy more seeds and fertilizers. Those who are not ruined by inevitable debt become part of a company's production chain.
Agricultural biodiversity is critical in the face of the global challenges the world faces today - new strains of diseases, environmental pressures from climate change, and socio-economic challenges. The adaptability of crops is the cornerstone of the planet's survival, but over the course of the 20th century, according to the FAO, around 75% of crop diversity was lost to privatization and monoculture - that is, growing a single crop on the same land year after year.
Resistance to seed privatization is global. Farmers develop local seed systems and risk fines and imprisonment for storing and sharing seeds. They march, strike, refuse to give in. They pay fines and go to jail and sometimes they win. The victories may seem small, but they are huge for those involved.
These farmers may not change the world immediately, but they continue to change their societies, and that can and will lead to global change.
11. Peasants Rebel: France 1999
A French sheep farmer finds a way to symbolically protest the influx of multinationals by dismantling a McDonald's branch brick by brick.
Fight against McDonaldization
In 1999, José Bové and 300 employees dismantled a half-built McDonald's in Millau (Aveyron). This was a symbolic action to protest against globalization and the loss of food sovereignty to multinational corporations - the right to healthy, diverse and culturally appropriate food produced using sustainable methods. It was an action carried out not only on behalf of traditional French producers, but also for those from all over the world.
Bové's action created an army of agricultural activists and was part of a wider protest aimed at stopping the flow of genetically modified crops and monocultures into Europe.
On the day of his trial in Millau, Bové arrived in an ox cart holding up a large Roquefort cheese. When he later appeared in convict clothing to begin his three-month sentence, Bové earned the applause of hundreds of his supporters and headed a tractor convoy on the six-hour drive to prison.
Using nonviolent civil disobedience to draw attention to injustices, Bové won the support of thousands through his time in prison. He picked up on deep fears about the security of the food supply in France and recognized and questioned what many saw as a threat to the cultural identity of France.
This activist and sheep farmer inspired an international protest movement that included the Confederation Paysanne, the Peasant Agriculture Conservation Associations, and La Via Campesina, the international peasant movement. These organizations continue to call for the protection of human rights, including the right to control the supply and safety of one's food.
Bové led the successful movement against the cultivation of GMOs in France and Europe. (Spain and Portugal are the only European countries that grow GMO crops). From 2009 to 2019 he was a member of the European Parliament for the European Greens.
Seville 2012. Photo: author.
12. Resistance to Eviction: Spain 2008 - Present
The people are regaining the power to resist evictions as the government and banks make no move to help the increasingly desperate population.
The government saves banks: PAH saves people
Between 2008 and 2012 around 250,000 seizure orders for Spanish properties were served. In 2013 there were an average of 184 evictions per day.
Organizations to combat eviction, such as the Platform of the People Affected by Mortgage (PAH), were set up in response to the inability of the Spanish government to uphold the constitutional right of all Spaniards to stable and affordable housing.
The PAH aimed to prevent the systematic evictions of tens of thousands of debtors across Spain and to convert mortgage-stricken apartments into affordable rental apartments while reforming the Mortgage Act, which previously gave banks the right to evacuate, even after a property has been evicted by residents demand full payment of the debt.
The strength of this movement was based on its very broad social base. Weekly meetings empowered people by sharing knowledge and experience with the eviction process.
The PAH relied on dozens of protesters who gathered at short notice to block entrances to properties that had been evicted. The PMH re-occupied vacant apartments owned by banks to provide shelter for displaced families. Eight months after the collective occupation began, 20 apartment blocks were occupied, providing accommodation for 1,049 people.
These methods of political activism have been widely recognized by law. The Spanish banks had been saved with public money. The PAH and its supporters saw the occupation not as illegal, but as a justified recapture.
In addition to excellently organized demonstrations, manifestos and interactions with the media and public institutions after the PAH also participated in controversial 'Escraches' - protests in front of the houses of politicians and the European Court of Justice, in which they called for changes to the Spanish mortgage legislation.
The anti-eviction campaign challenged the rhetoric of the state, banks and property developers. The protests hit the very heart of the Spanish power structure by challenging forms of expropriation through state-sponsored private funding.
In 2013, the European Court of Justice declared its support for the People's Legislative Initiative - drafted by the PAH movement. This obliged the Spanish government to amend the Mortgage Law and Civil Procedure Law to do that
Correct the imbalance between the creditor and the individual debtor.
13. Digital Civil Disobedience: USA 2013
A man loses his freedom to expose what our governments are up to - to watch and eavesdrop on us, to collect our data in order to manipulate and control us.
Whistleblowing is democracy's last resort
Edward Snowden, cybersecurity expert, copied and handed over a huge cache of nearly ten thousand top secret documents taken from the National Security Agency (NSA) while serving as a contractor for Booz Allen Hamilton.
When his concerns about unethical practices were dismissed, Snowden went public with secret details of US government surveillance programs (in collaboration with telecommunications companies and European governments).
Its aim was to warn the world about widespread, unconstitutional surveillance and invasion of privacy, and to suggest that the public must protect their own interests if the government does not represent them.
The Snowden Leaks did not put an end to government surveillance. The fight against privacy invasion and data gathering continues, but Snowden's actions sparked a cultural shift by raising awareness of the violation of government regulations. They sparked a cultural discussion about the government's violation of civil liberties. After receiving death threats and being branded a traitor by many, Snowden is still in exile in Moscow
Edward Snowden is a person who has acted with the utmost courage and high personal risk to denounce an injustice that affected us all.
14. The People's Revolution: Sudan 2019
After decades of living under a brutal dictatorship, the Sudanese people are rising in a campaign of disobedience and resistance. It's an uphill battle.
We will rebuild Sudan
On April 11, 2019, a pro-democracy, nonviolent civil uprising involving thousands of Sudanese overthrew the most brutal of all dictators, Omar al-Bashir. His 30-year rule, backed by Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, weakened the economy, divided society and led to barbaric oppression of women.
After starting in the provinces in response to the rising cost of living, the uprising soon shifted to the capital, Khartoum. North and South came together, regardless of class, ethnicity, or religious belief, and defied the regime. The country's young professionals were at the forefront of the uprising, with women encouraging other women to join their demand for freedom.
Restaurants, banks and shops were closed. The streets became deserted. For eight months there were strikes and demonstrations calling for democracy, the dissolution of the National Congress Party (NCP), respect for human rights, economic reforms and the repeal of the law on public order, with the women from actively participating in public Life should be excluded and intimidated.
After Bashir was overthrown, the Transitional Military Council (TMC) took command and it soon became clear that he was not ready to give up power. On June 3, after weeks of peaceful celebrations, the Rapid Reaction Forces opened fire on demonstrators who were holding a prolonged sit-down strike in front of the military headquarters in Khartoum. The internet was shut down to suppress the exchange of information. Hundreds were killed and raped to break the revolution and traumatize its followers.
People didn't give up. Two weeks after the massacre, the youth regrouped, calling for continued civil disobedience and nonviolent resistance, saying they would not let up until power was transferred to a liberal civil administration.
On July 17th, the TMC and civilian protesters, represented by the Forces of Freedom and Change, signed a power-sharing agreement.
15. Gilet Jaunes: France 2018-2019
President Macron - the youngest head of state in France since Napoleon Bonaparte - is experiencing a grass-roots revolution through a disaffected and angry population.
Je suis le peuple. I am the people
The Gilet Jaune (yellow vest) protest came about as a reaction to changes in labor law, particularly the increase in fuel taxes, but it grew into a demand for social and economic justice. Through social media, organized by Colère groups (anger groups), people in France came together in solidarity regardless of their political and social background.
After the tax cuts for France's millionaires in 2017, the tax burden on the ailing middle class was greater, while the rural population faced high unemployment and a further economic downturn. Cancellations in public transport led to an increased dependency on cars.The rural population, including those for whom life in the big cities had become unaffordable, struggled to survive.
Gilet Jaune roadblock. Unknown photographer.
In October 2018, truck driver Eric Drouet asked the French people to block their local roads on November 17th. The aim was to obstruct traffic to get the government's attention. About 290,000 people took part.
In France, every driver is obliged to have a safety vest - a gilet jaune - in his vehicle. These ubiquitous items of clothing became a symbol of protest when drivers showed them on the dashboards, hung them on the windows and adorned them with protest slogans. The power of the yellow vest lay in popular support. Within a month, polls showed that over half the country agreed to the protest.
Though based on peaceful civil disobedience such as roadblocks and makeshift camps at roundabouts, the yellow vests protests sparked some of the worst civil unrest France has ever seen. Although the majority of the demonstrators distanced themselves from the violent elements of the movement, the French authorities were charged with disproportionate use of force.
After four weeks of disruption, President Macron was forced to make a major U-turn, making concessions, including withdrawing fuel taxes, and launching the Grand National Debate, inviting citizens to express their concerns and hopes about French politics.
Civil disobedience does not mean disobeying the law. In essence, it is about the separation between the legal and the legitimate. It is used when traditional protest methods such as petitions, lobbying, marching, voting and regular, regular demonstrations have not led to success.
As for Extinction Rebellion, our strategy is one of civil disobedience based on nonviolent interference. Occasionally the state will choose to respond by force, but using the same tactic we are trying to change means giving up our moral compass.
Extinction Rebellion will continue to protest in the fight to contain mass extinction and minimize the risk of social collapse. The rebels refuse to stand idly by as grave injustice unfolds. The struggle is a struggle for survival.
We're building an inclusive, participatory movement for change - a movement that grew out of grassroots campaigns on the street, at home, in schools and at work, on the internet and around the world with over 1,146 groups in 72 countries.
There is not only a legal but also a moral responsibility to obey fair laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility not to obey unjust laws.
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