How were computers in 1997

The history of the personal computers

If you look back to 1983, for example, the PC technology of that time seems almost stone-age. But you also get a sense of how dramatically the PC has developed from then to now - and with music players and smartphones, it has also been able to gain ever greater influence in the field of entertainment electronics.

  1. 1983: Compaq Portable debut
    Founded just a year earlier, Compaq took the first step on the market with a new PC - the first portable IBM-compatible system and thus a forerunner of modern mobile computing. Compaq then became one of the largest companies in the PC industry - but was bought by HP two decades later.
  2. 1984: PCs Limited founded
    A college student named Michael Dell starts a small company in his dorm room: Dell. He builds individually configurable PCs. I developed his venture into one of the largest companies in the industry and expanded to include printers, servers and network devices.
  3. 1985: Windows 1.0 is released
    For the first time there were rumors two years earlier about the possible release of software called Windows. Even into the coming year, hardly anyone pays any attention to the program - at this point in time nobody suspects that this rather clumsy, graphical file manager would one day develop into the largest and most widely used operating system in the world.
  4. 1986: Intel brings the 386
    The first 32-bit processor, the 386, can access seemingly endless memory - well, at least by the standards of the time, it felt pretty endless. The 386 is the driving force behind a new generation of software, including revised versions of Windows.
  5. 1987: VGA started
    Video Graphics Array (VGA) comes with IBM's PS / 2 connector. VGA survived, becoming a new standard and the lowest common denominator for Windows, graphics cards and monitors. Even today, most monitors have a VGA connection.
  6. 1988: EISA shows up
    Created in response to IBM's in-house micro-channel interface, EISA is primarily used to support older ISA (PC-AT) expansion cards. EISA brings PC farmers some success until it is superseded by more modern standards (such as VESA, PCI and AGP).
  7. 1989: HTML is invented
    Tim Berners-Lee develops the programming language HyperText Markup Language - HTML for short. A year later he used HTML to create the core of what would later become the World Wide Web.
  8. 1990: Windows 3.0 comes onto the market
    Windows 3.0 has gone from being a simple, graphical file manager to being the most common way people interact with their PC. Windows 3.0 has a whopping 16MB of memory. Software vendors in droves have the new operating system on their store shelves.
  9. 1991: Birth of the PCI connection
    The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI for short), developed by Intel, makes life a lot easier for PC manufacturers and users. PCI (the forerunner of PCI Express) allows the automatic configuration of interface cards, improves the speed and extends the general compatibility.
  10. 1993: Mosaic web browser released
    Developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, the Mosaic Web Browser may not be the first graphical browser, but it is fast becoming the most popular. This makes Mosaic the pioneer of all modern web browsers. Mosaic's chief programmer, Marc Andreessen, later founds Netscape.
  11. 1994: Windows 95 started
    Windows 95 has meanwhile changed from a hopeless DOS competitor to a complete operating system. With the release of Windows 95, MS-DOS is officially declared dead. Thanks to clever programming, Windows 95 masters both 32 and 16-bit applications. One of the biggest innovations - which initially confuses users - is the start menu.
  12. 1995: The first major 3D chips
    The first 3D accelerators that could actually be used for PC gaming - Rendition Vérité 1000 and 3dfx Voodoo - mark a new era for graphics cards. Their development is putting pressure on the VGA and "Windows Accelerator" cards that have been widespread to date
  13. 1996: USB emerges
    In contrast to serial and parallel ports, which tend to be picky at times, USB means the step towards self-configuring devices and makes connecting keyboards, mice and cameras to the PC a real breeze. In addition, a completely new market for USB flash memory is emerging.
  14. 1997: DVD players and discs on the market
    DVD drives are becoming part of many PCs, replacing discarded CD drives and becoming the new standard for optical drives almost everywhere in the world - a step that later Blu-ray drives will not manage.
  15. 1998: DMCA is passed
    In the US, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act is passed - a controversial law that, among other things, strengthens the rights of copyright owners. It criminalizes the production and distribution of technologies, devices and services that crack the copy protection of a product - even if the copyright itself is not infringed in the process. A similar law was passed in the European Union in 2001 with Directive 2001/29 / EC.
  16. 1999: Ratification of the 802.11a / b standards
    The first 802.11 standard for wireless networks is introduced - at the same time, the Wi-Fi Alliance is founded to certify and advertise products based on this standard. Wi-Fi later developed into one of the network technologies with the greatest spread and acceptance and is extremely popular with both companies and private users.
  17. 2000: Electronic Arts releases "The Sims"
    Conceived by Will Wright, the PC game "The Sims" simulates the everyday life of virtual people. Even if the gameplay is rather sterile and a little drowsy, "The Sims" quickly ascends the throne of the best-selling computer game of all time, devouring tons of gaming time as players try to continuously improve the everyday lives of their virtual people.
  18. 2001: Windows XP comes
    Windows XP combines Windows 2000 and ME in a 32-bit operating system, making it the most successful OS in Microsoft history.
  19. 2002: Tablet PC debut
    Even if tablets existed before, they did not gain greater public attention until 2002 with Microsoft's Windows XP Tablet PC Edition. Although they have not yet managed to establish themselves on the market, on the contrary, they are quite a flop. But they lay the foundation for the current Windows 8 tablets.
  20. 2003: AMD brings the first 64-bit x86 CPU
    AMD is ahead of Intel and is the first company to bring the Athlon 64 CPU onto the market, which offers both 64-bit registers and 64-bit memory in its architecture. Microsoft then starts developing a Windows version with 64-bit support - Intel does not bring its own x86-64 product onto the market until two years later.
  21. 2004: Sales start of the Intel Pentium M
    Developed by Intel's design team in Israel, the Pentium M CPU is a heavily modified version of the Pentium 3 with a focus on performance efficiency instead of high clocking - and thus a stark contrast to Intel's Pentium 4. The M processor becomes the forerunner of the Core Range of the manufacturer.
  22. 2006: Intel launches Core 2 Duo
    The chip manufacturer Intel is finally burying its Pentium 4 architecture with the new Core 2 Duo CPU. Although the new processor is even clocked lower than its predecessor, the Core 2 Duo manages to wrest the performance crown from its competitor AMD thanks to its more efficient instruction set. Core 2 Duo requires significantly less energy and produces less waste heat than AMD processors.
  23. 2007: Premiere of the Apple iPhone
    Apple's iPhone invents smartphones, is incredibly popular and is forcing competitor Google to gain a foothold in the field of mobile operating systems. Microsoft also recognizes the potential and will later incorporate touch functions and simplified user control into its PC and mobile operating systems.
  24. 2008: Laptops sell better than desktops
    Mobility will be the primary focus for computer manufacturers this year - especially as the proliferation of Wi-Fi and falling prices are driving more and more people to buy a laptop. In some households, the laptop is now the only PC available.
  25. 2010: Apple brings the iPad
    In contrast to Microsoft's futile efforts to bring interesting versions of its tablet PCs to the man, Apple manages to dominate the market almost overnight. The key to success: The iPad is not a PC that behaves like a tablet, but a tablet through and through. In addition, users have the option of choosing between numerous apps for little or no money - and the apps ecosystem is still expanding.
  26. 2011: Intel develops ultrabooks
    Spurred on by the failure of PC manufacturers to successfully copy Apple's MacBook Air, Intel comes up with broad guidelines for ultraportable PCs: The Ultrabook Standards. With a strong financial injection, the group is helping companies design and build the new laptops. The sales of ultrabooks have so far turned out to be a double-edged sword, but the ultra-slim and ultra-light laptops will not disappear from the market for the time being.
  27. 2013: Bloodbath in the global PC market
    At the beginning of the year, the PC market experienced the worst slump since IDC began recording - this was also due to the new Microsoft Windows 8 operating system.

1983: Compaq Portable debut

Founded just a year earlier, Compaq took the first step on the market with a new PC - the first portable IBM-compatible system and thus a forerunner of modern mobile computing. Compaq then became one of the largest companies in the PC industry - but was bought by HP two decades later.

1984: PCs Limited founded

A college student named Michael Dell starts a small company in his dorm room: Dell. He builds individually configurable PCs. I developed his venture into one of the largest companies in the industry and expanded to include printers, servers and network devices.

1985: Windows 1.0 is released

For the first time, there were rumors two years earlier about the possible release of software called Windows. Even into the coming year, hardly anyone pays any attention to the program - at this point in time nobody suspects that this rather clumsy, graphical file manager would one day develop into the largest and most widely used operating system in the world.

1986: Intel brings the 386

The first 32-bit processor, the 386, can access seemingly endless memory - well, at least by the standards of the time, it felt pretty endless. The 386 is the driving force behind a new generation of software, including revised versions of Windows.

1987: VGA started

Video Graphics Array (VGA) comes with IBM's PS / 2 connector. VGA survives, becomes a new standard and the lowest common denominator of Windows, graphics card and monitor. Even today, most monitors have a VGA connection.

1988: EISA shows up

Created in response to IBM's in-house micro-channel interface, EISA is primarily used to support older ISA (PC-AT) expansion cards. EISA brings PC farmers some success until it is superseded by more modern standards (such as VESA, PCI and AGP).

1989: HTML is invented

Tim Berners-Lee develops the programming language HyperText Markup Language - HTML for short. A year later he used HTML to create the core of what would later become the World Wide Web.

1990: Windows 3.0 comes onto the market

Windows 3.0 has gone from being a simple, graphical file manager to being the most common way people interact with their PC. Software vendors in droves have the new operating system on their store shelves.

1991: Birth of the PCI connection

The Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI for short), developed by Intel, makes life a lot easier for PC manufacturers and users. PCI (the forerunner of PCI Express) allows the automatic configuration of interface cards, improves the speed and extends the general compatibility.

1992: AMD is allowed to sell cloned x86 CPUs

Ten years earlier, in 1982, Intel licensed the manufacturer AMD to produce "cloned" x86 chips. In 1986, Intel terminated this agreement, but AMD challenged the decision and started a lawsuit that had lasted for years. In 1992 this dispute came to an end and AMD was awarded the right in court to continue to produce and sell x86 CPUs. As a new competitor, AMD finally persuades Intel to sell its Pentium 4 in favor of the more powerful Core CPUs.

1993: Mosaic web browser released

Developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, the Mosaic Web Browser may not be the first graphical browser, but it is fast becoming the most popular. This makes Mosaic the pioneer of all modern web browsers. Mosaic's chief programmer, Marc Andreessen, later founds Netscape.

1994: Windows 95 started

Windows 95 has meanwhile changed from a hopeless DOS competitor to a complete operating system. With the release of Windows 95, MS-DOS is officially declared dead. Thanks to clever programming, Windows 95 can handle both 32 and 16-bit applications. One of the biggest innovations - which initially confuses users - is the start menu.

1995: The first major 3D chips

The first 3D accelerators that could actually be used for PC gaming - Rendition Vérité 1000 and 3dfx Voodoo - mark a new era for graphics cards. Their development is putting pressure on the VGA and "Windows Accelerator" cards that have been widespread to date.

1996: USB emerges

In contrast to serial and parallel ports, which tend to be picky at times, USB means the step towards self-configuring devices and makes connecting keyboards, mice and cameras to the PC a real breeze. In addition, a completely new market for USB flash memory is emerging.

1997: DVD drives in PCs

DVD drives are becoming part of many PCs, replacing discarded CD drives and becoming the new standard for optical drives almost everywhere in the world - a step that later Blu-ray drives will not be able to achieve.

1999: Ratification of the 802.11a / b standards

The first 802.11 standard for wireless networks is introduced - at the same time, the Wi-Fi Alliance is founded to certify and advertise products based on this standard. Wi-Fi later developed into one of the network technologies with the greatest spread and acceptance and is extremely popular with both companies and private users.

2001: Windows XP comes

Windows XP combines Windows 2000 and ME in a 32-bit operating system, making it the most successful OS in Microsoft history.

2002: Tablet PC debut

Even if tablets existed before, they did not gain greater public attention until 2002 with Microsoft's Windows XP Tablet PC Edition. Although they have not yet managed to establish themselves on the market, on the contrary, they are quite a flop. But they lay the foundation for the current Windows 8 tablets.

2003: AMD brings the first 64-bit x86 CPU

AMD is ahead of Intel and is the first company to bring the Athlon 64 CPU onto the market, which offers both 64-bit registers and 64-bit memory in its architecture. Microsoft then starts developing a Windows version with 64-bit support - Intel does not bring its own x86-64 product onto the market until two years later.

2004: Sales start of the Intel Pentium M

Developed by Intel's design team in Israel, the Pentium M CPU is a heavily modified version of the Pentium 3 with a focus on performance efficiency instead of high clocking - and thus a stark contrast to Intel's Pentium 4. The M processor becomes the forerunner of the Core Range of the manufacturer.

2005: Apple switches to Intel CPUs

Until now, the manufacturer Apple had relied on CPUs from PowerPC for its home PCs. Now, however, with this choice they are faced with a one-way street in terms of performance - and are therefore switching to Intel's processors. Apple's operating systems and software are now also natively adapted to the Intel architecture.

2006: Intel launches Core 2 Duo

The chip manufacturer Intel is finally burying its Pentium 4 architecture with the new Core 2 Duo CPU. Although the new processor is even clocked lower than its predecessor, the Core 2 Duo manages to wrest the performance crown from its competitor AMD thanks to its more efficient instruction set. Core 2 Duo consumes significantly less power and produces less waste heat than AMD processors.

2007: Premiere of the Apple iPhone

Apple's iPhone invents smartphones, is incredibly popular and is forcing competitor Google to gain a foothold in the field of mobile operating systems. Microsoft also recognizes the potential and will later incorporate touch functions and simplified user control into its PC and mobile operating systems.

2008: Notebooks sell better than desktops

Mobility will be the primary focus for computer manufacturers this year - especially as the proliferation of Wi-Fi and falling prices are causing more and more people to buy a notebook. In some households, the mobile computer is now the only PC available.

2009: Release of Windows 7

After Windows Vista, Windows 7 wants to be the comeback that Microsoft needs so badly. With the sleek design and greater demand control, Microsoft wants to seamlessly build on the success of Windows XP. Windows 7 also makes the switch from 32-bit to 64-bit computing: significantly more 64-bit versions are sold than 32-bit versions of the operating system.

2010: Apple brings the iPad

In contrast to Microsoft's futile efforts to bring interesting versions of its tablet PCs to the man, Apple manages to dominate the market almost overnight. The key to success: The iPad is not a PC that behaves like a tablet, but a tablet through and through. In addition, users have the option of choosing between numerous apps for little or no money - and the apps ecosystem is still expanding.

2011: Intel develops ultrabooks

Spurred on by the failure of PC manufacturers to successfully copy Apple's MacBook Air, Intel comes up with broad guidelines for ultraportable PCs: The Ultrabook Standards. With a strong financial injection, the group is helping companies design and build the new laptops. The sales of ultrabooks have so far turned out to be a double-edged sword, but the ultra-slim and ultra-light laptops will not disappear from the market for the time being.

2012: Windows 8 debut

The most controversial desktop operating system since Windows 95 is Windows 8. It introduces the Microsoft Store for apps and throws the start menu overboard in favor of a start screen that occupies the entire display.

2013: Windows 8.1 - the better Windows 8

Around a year after Windows 8, the next version will appear with Windows 8.1. This again has a start button, which, however, has a different function than before. With Windows 8.1, Microsoft offers users significantly more options when it comes to the interface that you automatically end up in after the system starts.

  1. Windows 8.1 - The new features for professional users
    Windows 8.1 brings some exciting innovations, especially for use in companies.
  2. Home page
    The start page can be hidden in Windows 8.1 when the computer is started. In addition, Windows 8.1 offers further improvements in this area, which can be set centrally.
  3. Sort apps
    Microsoft has improved the view of the start page in Windows 8.1 and allows better sorting options for the apps, such as categories.
  4. Start button
    With the new start button you can access settings more quickly or shut down the computer more easily.
  5. Import / export
    Windows 8.1 can export and re-import the appearance of the start page, and you can make settings via group policies.
  6. WSUS
    WSUS in Windows Server 2012 R2 can provide patches for Windows 8.1.
  7. folder
    With the working folders you can access resources in companies without the computer having to be a member of the domain.
  8. Hyper-V
    Hyper-V in Windows 8.1 now also supports Generation 2 VMs, such as Windows Server 2012 R2.
  9. Server role
    You install the working folders in Windows 8.1 via a server role in Windows Server 2012 R2.
  10. Server manager
    You create working folders in Windows Server 2012 R2 using a wizard in Server Manager.

There are also a number of new functions for professional users with Windows 8.1. With Windows 8.1, Microsoft primarily wants to support the bring-your-own-device (BYOD) approach of companies. Without a Windows 8.1 PC or tablet being a member of a domain, the computer can access company resources in the network or over the Internet.

2015: Windows 10

The first technical previews for the latest Windows version have been available since the end of 2014. Windows 10 runs on all end devices and offers improved business functions. The start menu, which disappeared and was sorely missed with Windows 8, is also celebrating a comeback.

This article is based on oneContribution of the TecChannel sister publication PC-Welt. (mhr)