What is biogas

Carbonology

Introduction: what actually is biogas?

Biogas arises from anaerobic fermentation or fermentation of organic substances, including organic fractions of household and industrial waste, manure and manure, sewage sludge, energy crops, biodegradable waste in landfills and other biodegradable raw materials under anaerobic conditions. In industrialized countries, biogas is made by anaerobic fermentation of organic substrates in large Digesters generated. Biogas is also produced during anaerobic decomposition in landfills and is referred to as landfill gas in this case.

Anaerobic digester

Biogas mainly contains methane and carbon dioxide, but also small amounts of other gases and trace elements such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, siloxanes, oxygen, mercaptans, etc. The gas is usually saturated with water. The Utilization of biogas usually takes place in gas turbines or by internal combustion engines coupled with generators. A typical capacity is 1MW / 500 Nm³ / h biogas. Depending on the intended use, raw material source and the respective statutory environmental protection requirements, the Processing of biogas different steps required.

What is biogas: composition

During anaerobic fermentation, organic material is broken down in several steps by different types of microorganisms. The end products are a gas that mainly contains methane and carbon dioxide and is known as biogas, as well as a viscous or solid fraction from the remains of the fermented substrate, the so-called fermentation residues. composition and yield of the Biogas depend on the composition of the substrate used in anaerobic fermentation.

Components

Household garbage

Sewage sludge

Agricultural waste

CH4 Vol .-%

50-60

60-75

60-75

CO2 % By volume

30-40

20-30

20-30

H2O% by volume

6 (at 40 ° C)

6 (at 40 ° C)

6 (at 40 ° C)

N2 % By volume

0-5

0-1

0-1

O2 % By volume

<1

< 0,5

< 0,5

H2S, siloxanes, aromatics, H2 etc.

rest

Table 1 Composition of biogas

Complete biogas solutions from DESOTEC activated carbon

To the Quality of the raw biogas Normally, undesirable substances such as hydrogen sulfide, oxygen, nitrogen, water and particles are removed from the gas. The main reason for this is to avoid corrosion and mechanical wear and tear on the system in which the biogas is used. DESOTEC activated carbon is a leader in the field of Purification of biogas in agriculture and the food industry, landfills and municipal sewage treatment plants. Biogas is cleaned by removing hydrogen sulfide and siloxanes from the filtered medium.

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