What is Maharashtra's NEET 2017 Advisory Process

Carl Heinrich Becker Weg Berlin Tel .: berlin.de No. 3: 06 / / 2016


1 Carl Heinrich Becker Weg Berlin Tel .: berlin.de No. 3: 06 / / 2016 The disaster research center founded in 1987 at the University of Kiel by the sociologist Lars Clausen and transferred to the Free University of Berlin (FU Berlin) in 2009 ( KFS) is an interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary institution with a social science focus. The primary goal of the work of the KFS is the identification and prioritization of risks and dangers in order to optimize the use of resources for sustainable sociocultural and ecological development. The work areas of the KFS encompass the entire disaster cycle, i.e. the emergence, course and management conditions of crises and disasters up to sustainable social development (e.g. security, risk and crisis perception, risk reduction and disaster prevention, preparation for and warning of crises and disasters, adaptation to the consequences of climate change, human behavior in extreme situations, photo security research: Courtesy of the BVG. More photos KFS vulnerability and resilience, management of crises and disasters, sustainable reconstruction after disasters) in industrialized countries and the so-called countries of the south. To this end, the KFS identifies and evaluates existential dangers that develop, for example, in the context of global environment and climate change or from technological or economic development, and it conducts research on the causes and consequences of humanitarian crises, pandemics or social upheavals, etc. The KFS operates to this end both social and humanities basic research as well as application-oriented research. From January 2016, it will also be offering advice, instruction and training courses in various formats via the affiliated academy (A KFS).

2 News from the KFS research trip Hanoi, Vietnam Prof. Dr. Martin Voss carried out a research trip to Hanoi in August 2016 and discussed current challenges in the field of disaster management with representatives of the German Red Cross (DRK) and the Vietnamese Red Cross. He also consulted with employees of the Society for International Cooperation (GIZ) and the German embassy in Hanoi. D A CH workshop on the refugee situation 2015/16 in Zurich Dr. Cordula Dittmer and Daniel F. Lorenz took part in a two-day expert workshop in Zurich on experiences of the refugee crisis in October 2016. The workshop was organized by the Swiss Federal Office for Civil Protection together with the Center for Security Studies (CSS) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a so-called D A CH workshop with representatives from Germany, Austria and Switzerland. 22 experts from national and sub-national authorities, aid organizations and science took part in the workshop. A report on the event can be found at: Exchange of experiences between Germany, Austria and Switzerland /. START Fund Network in Bonn Andrea Jungmann and Lena Bledau represented the KFS at the START Fund Network launch event in Bonn. The START Fund Network is an association of international aid organizations. In the premises of Welthungerhilfe, the opportunity was given to exchange ideas between science and practice. Among other things, the KFS was able to present its competencies in intercultural cooperation with India. Workshop on climate change adaptation in Geneva On July 5, 2016, the KFS took part in the third workshop Dialogue Platform of the Action Plan of the Federal Foreign Office for Humanitarian Adaptation to Climate Change on Forecast based financing (FbF) in Geneva. The workshop was organized by the International Federation of the Red Cross, the DRK and the Federal Foreign Office. Together with the Mozambican Red Cross, KFS employee Lena Bledau presented the two concepts Transdisciplinary Integrative Vulnerability and Resilience Approach (TIV) and disaster cultures as well as the progress of FbF in Mozambique at the marketplace. Workshop at the Free University of Berlin: Refugee issues as a challenge for disaster control and research From May 2016 at the Free University of Berlin as part of the disaster network organized by the KFS by Daniel F. Lorenz and Dr. Cordula Dittmer held a workshop on the importance of refugee issues for disaster control and research. The aim was to initiate an initial exchange between organizations and actors involved in civil protection 2

3 (including DRK, Malteser, Johanniter, Berliner Stadtmission, Federal Office for Civil Protection and Disaster Aid [BBK]), who have been active in refugee aid for almost a year and bring them together with findings from disaster research in the field of refugee aid and migration. The report on the workshop can be found at: Cordula Dittmer & Daniel F. Lorenz: The refugee issue as a challenge for disaster control and research: Lessons learned from an encounter between science and practice. Link: katnet workshop /. Exchange with China on Integrated Disaster Risk Management Prof. Dr. Martin Voss lectured on November 19, 2016 at the 2016 International Conference on Emergency Management at the Chinese Academy of Governance, Beijing, on the subject of Civil Protection and Societies in Times of Constant Crisis A European Perspective. As a representative of the German delegation together with the BBK, the Technische Hilfswerk (THW) and the GIZ, Voss took part in the signature ceremony for the extension of the implementation agreement for cooperation in the field of integrated disaster risk management between the Chinese Academy of Governance (CAG) and the National Institute of Emergency Management (NIEM) and GIZ participated. See also the communication from the BBK: en_im_bevs_erneut_vertieft.html. Interviews on Ebola and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) in Sierra Leone Following the conference of the International Peace Research Association (IPRA) in Freetown, Sierra Leone, Daniel F. Lorenz and Dr. Cordula Dittmer conducted interviews with the Sierra Leone Red Cross, Welthungerhilfe and the DRR department of the Young Men s Christian Association (YMCA) on vulnerability, resilience, disaster prevention and Ebola. Events & Lectures German Prevention Day, Magdeburg, June 2016 Krüger, D .; Seidelsohn, K .; Voss, M .: Environmental dangers and ethical discourse Subjective (in) security in the topic box fair distribution of security in the city. Workshop Current Developments and Challenges in Research on Humanitarian Aid, University of Siegen, June 2016 Bledau, L .; Radtke, K .: Civil military relations and Ebola experiences from Germany. 3rd Workshop of the Dialogue Platform on Forecast based financing (FbF), Geneva, July 2016 Bledau, L .; Lorenz, D.F .; Voss, M .: Poster presentation: Cultural and Societal Aspects of Disaster Preparedness Perspectives from Social Sciences. 3

4 Workshop Emerging Topics in Disaster Research, Ludwig Maximilians University Munich (LMU), July 2016 Lorenz, D.F .; Dittmer, C .: Disputed Disasters and Vulnerabilities. ISA Forum, Vienna, July 2016 Lorenz, D.F .; Dittmer, C .; Reiter, J .; Schulze, K .: Local Services, Vulnerabilities and Responses in the EU Refugee Crisis in Germany. Krüger, D .: Bodies of Vulnerabilities Using the Intersectionality Lens in Disaster Research; RC39: Sociology of Disasters, Session 459: Gender and Disasters: The Importance of Incorporating Feminist and Masculinities Lenses. Marg, O .; Bledau, L .; Voss, M .: Cultures and Catastrophes A theoretical framework to evaluate the social context of catastrophes. Seidelsohn, K .; Kruger, D .; Voss, M .: On Perception Patterns: Framing Subjective and Objectified Risks in the Planning Process for (more) Resilient Cities. 9th conference of the KatNet e.v .: Disaster Network: Welfare and woe of a (more) rational handling of disasters and risks, Osnabrück, September 2016 Dittmer, C .; Lorenz, D.F .; Wenzel, B .; Reiter, J .; Voss, M .: We had everything and that was our own and now we have a lot of free stuff! Flood victims between total loss and debates of envy. Bledau, L .: Irrational perception of rational strategies in disaster control? Analysis of the disaster culture using the example of Groß Rosenburg, Saxony Anhalt. Reiter, J .: Inequality, power and disaster profiteers using the example of the drought industry in northeast Brazil. Voss, M .: Rationalities of Disaster or: Disenchantment as Disaster (npotential) 7th International Conference on Integrated Disaster Risk Management (IDRiM) Disasters and Development: Towards a Risk Aware Society, Isfahan, Iran, October 2016 Wenzel, B .; Reiter, J .; Dittmer, C .; Lorenz, D.F .; Voss, M .: The Harmonization of People's Needs and Professional NGO Assistance. The Case of Flooding in Germany. Reiter, J .; Wenzel, B .; Dittmer, C .; Lorenz, D.F .; Voss, M .: The Social Dimension of Heat Waves Blind Spots in Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management in Germany and India. Conference for Bundestag employees, Berlin, October 5, 2016 Voss, M .: Between Vulnerability and Resilience. What does civil protection mean today ?, lecture for the Federal Academy of Security Policy (BAKS). 4th

5 65 years of the Geneva Refugee Convention. Conference of the Network Refugee Research, Osnabrück, October 2016 Lorenz, D.F .; Dittmer, C .: Structural (re) production of vulnerability in the care of refugees. Dittmer, C .; Lorenz, D.F .: Panel Vulnerability and Resilience in the Care of Refugees. Interdisciplinary workshop, Freiburg, October 2016 Voss, M .: Crisis communication in nuclear emergency protection. 1st Disaster Risk Management Conference, Berlin, November 2016 Lorenz, D.F .; Dittmer, C .; Voss, M .: Workshop Current Developments and Dynamics of Social Vulnerability and Resilience. Voss, M .: Civil protection and society in imbalance, Keynote speech. Academy for Crisis Management, Emergency Planning and Civil Protection (AKNZ) Congress for District Administrators, Ahrweiler, November 3, 2016 Voss, M .: Volunteer work under changed social and economic conditions. 26th International Peace Research Association (IPRA) General Conference on Agenda for Peace and Development. Conflict Prevention, Post Conflict Transformation, and the Conflict, Disaster Risk and Sustainable Development Debate, Freetown, Sierra Leone, November 27, December 1, 2016 Dittmer, C .; Lorenz, D. F .; Voss, M .: Embedding Disasters in Conflict Settings Some Thoughts from a Social Constructivist Perspective. Lorenz, D. F .; Dittmer, C .; Voss, M .: Vulnerability and Violence in the Context of Disaster and Peace and Conflict Studies. Dittmer, C .: Competing dualisms of disaster and conflict, panel discussion Disasters, Development and Conflict Risk Reduction. International Conference on Migration and Environmental Change, Berlin, December 2016 Upadhyay, H .: Everyone Likes it here: Perceptions of climate change and migration in Lakshadweep (India). 5

6 News from the INVOLVE projects The main project task in the last six months was the preparation and implementation of a quantitative population survey in the three project regions Berlin, Elbe Havel Land and Jena. In the Elbe Havel Land flood region, the on-site survey was carried out as a Faceto Face survey with the support of students from mid-July. At the same time, questionnaires were distributed to households as direct mail and an online link was set up. The response was very positive and the data is currently in the evaluation phase. The first results were discussed with the mayor of the municipality in mid-November and presented at an information event organized by the flood protection initiative Elbe Havel Winkel e.v. presented to a wider audience. The survey began at the same time in Berlin, also here in parallel as a direct mail and as an online survey. FloodEvac The expert survey on the 2013 flood in Saxony-Anhalt was successfully completed. A total of 30 disaster control experts were interviewed in the FloodEvac project, including employees of THW, DRK, Johanniter, LHW, administrative employees and mayors. The milestone was reached at the end of August and the status of the German-Indian association in Kulmbach (Bavaria) was presented to the Photo: FloodEvac milestone meeting in Kulmbach VDI, BMBF and the city of Kulmbach. The milestone meeting highlighted the good networking of the network partners and showed the first research results that can contribute to the safety of the population in the event of evacuations during flood events. 6th

7 VERSS In the VERSS project, a representative telephone survey was carried out in June and August 2016 on the perception of dangers by the Wuppertal population, which was supplemented in November by a focus survey in social institutions in the city. The telephone survey was carried out with the help of an institute and concluded with a sample of 1000 respondents. Questions were asked about the perception of danger and the sense of security in the city as a whole, as well as in the neighborhoods and residential areas: What spatial and social dangers do the residents see, what security measures do they take themselves and which support networks can be used in an emergency? In the third survey cycle, the focus survey, these questionnaires were distributed with the help of students in social institutions. More than 140 people were asked about their safety and perception of danger. In November, the first practical workshop, fair distribution of security in the city, was carried out in the project network and with the participation of experts from the authorities and organizations with security tasks (BOS) in Stuttgart City Hall. ENSURE In the final phase of the ENSURE project (end of the project) the manual for cooperation with volunteers in the disaster management process was published. For the first time, it offers the various BOS a structured way and uses numerous examples to illustrate detailed information on how cooperation with workers can be prepared, organized in action and subsequently evaluated. This manual deals with the changed conditions of action, it outlines the perspectives of the actors and then suggests specific solutions and measures. The manual is supplemented by a manual and a toolbox. With these documents, a first step towards a more structured cooperation between workers and emergency services has been taken. In addition, the second full exercise took place on October 8, 2016. During this exercise, the emergency services of the Berlin fire brigade and the DRK tested the involvement of people helping out in the event of a disaster, sometimes using the manual drawn up by the KFS. The manual, guidelines and toolbox are available for download on the FU Berlin website: 7

8 WEXICOM In the last six months, the WEXICOM project focused on the further development of the theoretical framework, which is intended to frame the empirical field research that follows. The aim is to develop a disaster-sociological approach to milieu-specific risk and crisis communication. Approaches in this regard were presented and discussed in the course of lectures. In addition, the upcoming quantitative representative population survey for spring 2017 is being prepared, in which the information needs and the handling of weather-related dangers on the part of the population are to be determined. As early as the summer, the first indicators were developed for this purpose with other projects at the KFS. KOPHIS In the KOPHIS Care and People in Need in Disaster Project, 13 interviews were carried out in December with people in need of help and care, relatives, representatives of care services and BOS. The focus was on issues of self-help and how to deal with help and those in need of care in the event of a disaster. As an example, the winter storm scenario with a long-lasting power failure was selected. Soft Parts As part of the conclusion of the joint project Soft Parts Social Determinants of Security at the Airport, the guideline developed in the project for improving communication and coordination of security actors at the airport was presented to a specialist audience and interested parties at a public event. In addition to presentations by security service providers and airport security officers, it became clear in the discussion of the results of the manual that the research project met with a great response in practice. The term was also extended to. Photo: Public final presentation SoftParts (Malou Windeler) 8

9 Tank Cascade Systems as Ancient Measurement of Integrated Watershed Managements in the Dryzone of Sri Lanka As part of the project, two 3-month research stays for master's theses were carried out in Sri Lanka. The aim was to analyze the vulnerability of the population in relation to changes in traditional watershed management systems. New Employees Himani Upadhyay Himani Upadhyay is an interdisciplinary scientist with a degree in Environmental Studies. Since November 2016 she has been working at the disaster research center in the FloodEvac project. She previously worked at The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI) in India. Her scientific focus is mainly on climate vulnerability and climate adaptation studies, with a central interest in researching different meanings and perceptions of climate change in people's everyday lives. Since 2009 she has been working on the human aspects of climate change.She is particularly interested in what makes people and the spaces in which they live become vulnerable in the event of climatic influences and how this vulnerability can be measured, observed, evaluated and how ultimately which adaptation strategies can be politically designed and integrated. In addition, she has very good knowledge of research on climate change and the interdependence of migration in island states, as well as understanding the socio-cultural agency of those people. She has extensive experience in project management, including in international collaborations. Himani has published in peer review articles, edited volumes, policy papers, community of practice discussion papers, conference papers, and other popular academic media. Theresa Zimmermann Theresa Zimmermann has been a research assistant at the KFS since December 2016. Your tasks include supporting the management, holding courses and doing your own research. Before that, she worked as a research assistant at the Institute for Ecological Economic Research (IÖW). She completed a master's degree in environmental policy and planning at the FU Berlin and the TU Berlin and wrote her master's thesis on the meaning and effects of a great flood in Mumbai, India. Before that she did a Bachelor of Geography, Social and Agricultural Sciences at the Humboldt University 9

10 in Berlin and the Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India. Her research interests lie in social and political ecology, urban transformation processes and the perception and negotiation of risks and vulnerabilities with a focus on South Asia. Visiting scholars & exchange / visits Visiting scholars from different countries work at the KFS. There is a regular exchange with scientists from all over the world. France On October 19, 2016, Jaime Abad, earthquake risk engineer from Geoscience for a Sustainable Earth, Risks and Prevention Division, France, visited the Disaster Research Center for an interdisciplinary scientific exchange and the development of joint research projects. China In August 2016, a delegation of Chinese scientists led by Prof. Xue Ling from the School of Government at Peking University visited the KFS as part of the University Alliance for Sustainability project. The visiting scholars were interested in an exchange and networking with scientists from Freie Universität in the field of sustainable development and urban sustainability / urban management / spatial structures. Japan In September 2016, Prof. Dr. Kaoru Takara, Director of the Disaster Prevention Research Institute (DPRI) of the University of Kyoto, Japan, to meet the KFS after getting to know each other at a conference of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Group (STAG) of the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR) in Geneva January 2016 to exchange ideas about further cooperation possibilities. USA Dr. Scott Knowles, Associate Professor, Department of History Center for Science, Technology and Society at Drexel University, MacAlister Hall, author of The Disaster Experts: Mastering Risk in Modern America held discussions at KFS for his current research project Comparative Investigation of the Origin of Disaster Research and of disaster management in the USA, Japan and Germany. He also took part in the KFS field research in the Elbe Havelland. 10

11 Publications Dittmer, C .; Lorenz, D.F. (2016): Waiting for the bus that never comes Quick Response Survey of needs and self-help potential of refugees in a Berlin emergency shelter. Berlin: Disaster Research Center. Dittmer, C .; Lorenz, D.F .; Reiter, J .; Wenzel, B .; Voss, M. (2016): Three years after the dyke breach On the presence of an unfinished disaster. In: Emergency Preparedness 4/2016, Krüger, D. (2016): Exclusion under inclusion? Reproduction of social positions in the process of urban renewal. In: Urban renewal and poverty yearbook Urban renewal Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, Reiter, J .; Wenzel, B .; Dittmer, C .; Lorenz, D.F .; Voss, M. (2016): The Social Dimension of Heat Waves Blind Spots in Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Management in Germany and India. In: Ghafory Ashtiany, M .; Izadkhah, Y.O .; Parsizadeh, F. (Eds.): Proceedings of Extended Abstracts. 7th International Conference on Integrated Disaster Risk Management. Disasters and Development: Towards a Risk Aware Society. Tehran: IDRiM, Wenzel, B. (2016): Securing livelihoods and risk management in rural northern Kyrgyzstan. A multidimensional geographic analysis. Dissertation at the Faculty of Geosciences at the Free University of Berlin. Berlin: Free University of Berlin, 349 pages. Wenzel, B .; Reiter, J .; Dittmer, C .; Lorenz, D.F .; Voss, M. (2016): The Harmonization of People's Needs and Professional NGO Assistance. The Case of Flooding in Germany. In: Ghafory Ashtiany, M .; Izadkhah, Y.O .; Parsizadeh, F. (Eds.): Proceedings of Extended Abstracts. 7th International Conference on Integrated Disaster Risk Management. Disasters and Development: Towards a Risk Aware Society. Tehran: IDRiM, Schulze, K., Voss, M. (2016): Toolbox for working with volunteers in disaster management. Berlin: Disaster Research Center. Schulze, K .; Voss, M. (2016): Manual for cooperation with helpers in disaster management. Berlin: Disaster Research Center. Schulze, K .; Voss, M. (2016): Guidelines for working with volunteers in disaster management. Berlin: Disaster Research Center. Seidelsohn, K .; Kruger, D .; Voss, M. (2016): Risk and Vulnerability Assessments. To the security and vulnerability of the population. Working paper VERSS (3). Berlin: Disaster Research Center. 11

12 The KFS in the media TV programs Prof. Dr. Martin Voss discussed in the talk show fact is! (MDR) on September 19, 2016 with the President of the Thuringian Office for the Protection of the Constitution, Stephan Kramer, the Bundestag member Martina Renner (Die Linke) and the Thuringian crisis team leader Wolfgang Schneider on civil protection in Germany. The broadcast can be viewed online in the ARD media library. Link to the broadcast: ist / faktist / mdr Fernsehen / Video? BcastId = & documentId = Daniel F. Lorenz commented on the earthquake in Italy, Deutsche Welle (DW) TV News, Uhr, 24 August Link to the broadcast not available. Radio broadcasts Prof. Dr. Martin Voss gave an interview on risk and crisis communication during the floods in Bavaria and North Rhine Westphalia. SWR2, June 2, The program is no longer available online. Prof. Dr. Martin Voss gave a detailed interview on social science disaster research, disaster risks in Germany, risk perception and warnings in the event of extreme events. The interview was conducted by Birgid Becker. Deutschlandfunk, June 5th Link to the interview: mitkatastrophen we will continue to be victims in kauf.694.de.html? Dram: article_id = Articles and reports The research activities of the INVOLVE project in the Elbe Havelland region were closely followed by the local press. There were numerous reports in the Volksstimme: December 7, 2016 Volksstimme Aid Organizations will be trusted Auxiliary Organizations will be trusted August 8, 2016 Volksstimme Survey on the flood continues internet survey on the flood continues on July 26, 2016 Volksstimme Survey on the flood situation Survey on the flood situation July 22, 2016 Volksstimme Berliner Uni asks questions about the flood May 4, 2016 Volksstimme Learning from mistakes in the flood from mistakes in the flood learning 12

13 April 24, 2016 Volksstimme After the flood: Berlin university is devoted to the disaster The flood berliner uni is devoted to the disaster About the milestone meeting of the joint project FloodEvac on September 1, 2017 in Kulmbach, the DPA published the message: Innovative flood protection German Indian research project FloodEvac. Various experts present the results of flood research. Journalist: Sophie Rohmeier. There was extensive coverage of this in the various online media. See the following list: September 2, 2016 Frankenpost The White Main as a research object White Main as a research object; art2439, #% 5D September 2, 2016 Nürnberger Nachrichten flood: Help from the mobile phone Link no longer available. September 2nd, 2016 Oberbayerisches Volksblatt Mit dem Smartphone gegen Hochwasser Link no longer available. September 1, 2016 Bild Online researchers: Using smartphones to reduce flood hazards, make results on flood research bild.html September 1, 2016 FOCUS Online researchers: Using smartphones to reduce flooding risks researchers with smartphones to reduce flood hazards_id_ html September 1, 2016 WeltN24 Using smartphones to reduce flooding risks Smartphones to reduce flooding Reducing dangers.html September 1, 2016 Neue Presse Coburg researchers: Reducing flood dangers with smartphones Link no longer available. September 1st, 2016 North Bavarian Courier Research for the fall of the flood kurier.de/nachrichten/forschung fur den fall der flut_ September 2016 Passauer Neue Presse Experts present results on flood research present results on flood research.html 13

14 September 1, 2016 Swabian researchers: Reducing flood risks with smartphones Researchers reduce flooding risks with smartphones _arid, html September 1, 2016 Straubinger Tagblatt India Researcher: Using smartphones to reduce flood risks Link no longer available. September 1, 2016 T Online experts present results on flood research online.de/regionales/id_ / experts present results on flood research.html Dates January 18, 2017 Final Scientific Conference of the Project RESCuE: Household Resilience and Crisis in Europe, Science Center Berlin for Social Research (WZB) Lorenz, DF; Dittmer, C .; Reiter, J .; Voss, M .: Patterns of Vulnerability and Resilience in the River Elbe Flood 2013 January April 2017, India The two employees Himani Upadhyay and Lena Bledau will start their 10-week field research in India on January 22, 2017. In Mumbai, the flood event of 2005 and its consequences for disaster management in the state of Maharashtra are being investigated. Interviews are planned with experts in Indian disaster control in Mumbai, Delhi and Pune. February 2, 2017 VERSS workshop, Wuppertal The research project Verss will hold a workshop together with the network partners to discuss the guidelines for a fair distribution of security in the city. This catalog of criteria for ethically reflective security work is aimed at a broad spectrum of urban actors and is intended to serve as a guide on various levels of ensuring and providing security March 2017 Conference: Prekarisierung Unbound ?, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin Krüger, D .: Die Wunden der Prekären : Materialization of crises in the body between the concepts of precariousness and vulnerability 14

15 March 2017 EuPRA and AFK Joint Conference 2017: Peace and Conflict Studies from the margins to the center. Rethinking Europe in an unequal world, Schwerte / Dortmund Dittmer, C .; Lorenz, D.F: 'Emergency Imaginary`, Humanitarian Interventions and Disaster Management in Germany April 3, 2017 Final conference of the EU project MARGIN Tackle insecurity in marginalized areas, Budapest Seidelsohn, K .: (In) security in urban areas. KFS, Nicolas Goez You can subscribe to this newsletter via the mailing list or download it here Freie Universität Berlin Disaster Research Center (KFS) Carl Heinrich Becker Weg Berlin Germany Tel: E Mail: berlin.de berlin.de/kfs/ 15