What are the different types of fans

Fans: technical data, types, manufacturers

A fan is a fluid flow machine (working machine) that conveys a gaseous dispersion medium through an impeller rotating in the housing. Fans are used in both domestic and industrial environments.

Synonym (s): industrial fans, fans, air curtains

application areas

Most fans convey air, so they belong in the ventilation technology or ventilation category.
The following areas of application are limited to this:

  • Air conditioning (control of temperature and humidity, cooling, drying, ventilation)
  • Explosion protection (prevents the formation of dangerous concentrations)
  • Air supply (for example for technical furnaces)
  • Transport (example pneumatic tube)
  • Musical instruments (when building organs)
  • Computer (waste heat from the power pack is dissipated)

Technical specifications

Tangential fan GreenTech EC motor BG 43 from ebm-papst

Fans achieve a pressure ratio between 1 and 1.3 between the suction and pressure sides (according to DIN 5801 and 13349). Fluid machines with a higher pressure ratio are called compressor.
The following key figures are used to compare the performance of fans with each other:

  • Printing number
  • Flow rate (delivery rate)
  • Run number
  • Diameter number
  • Efficiency
  • specific sound power level


  • Axial fans are the most common design. The axis of rotation of the impeller runs axially (parallel) to the air flow. The version without a housing is used for table and ceiling fans (fans).
  • With centrifugal / radial fans, the air is sucked in axially to the drive shaft of the radial fan and deflected by 90 ° by the rotation of the impeller and blown out radially.
  • Tangential / cross-flow fans look like wide / elongated centrifugal fans, but have blades that point forward (in the direction of travel). The functional principle of the tangential fan means that the air is fed through the fan wheel twice. First, it is drawn in tangentially over a large area approximately over half the surface of the fan wheel, guided through the inside of the wheel and also released again tangentially. The wheel also transports a small amount of air outside. The air is then mostly released through a narrow gap the width of the fan wheel on the opposite side. The drive motor is usually located in or at the end of the impeller. These fans are used in air conditioning units and fan heaters due to the large amounts of air that are released evenly over the wide outlet area. They are very quiet in operation and generate sufficient air throughput at low speeds.
  • Diagonal fans: The housing and fan blades of the diagonal fans are conical in shape (the radius increases towards the pressure side) so that the air does not exit axially, but diagonally. Diagonal fans have a greater air flow rate and build up a higher pressure with the same power and size, so they can be operated at a lower speed with the same effect and are therefore quieter.
  • Duct fans combine the advantages of centrifugal and axial fans - the powerful circulation of a classic centrifugal fan plus straight-line air flow from axial fans. They are specially designed for installation in ventilation ducts, provide powerful performance over many meters and ensure a regulated air flow. Because these fans are mainly used in commercial and industrial environments, the fans are very robust. They are made of durable plastic on metal and the housing has a zinc coating. Depending on the fan, you can choose between several ventilation speed levels.
  • Metal roof fans are primarily used in industry. They help to transport exhaust air upwards and to supply production halls, workshops and warehouses with fresh oxygen. Roof fans are often the end of pipe ventilation systems. The industrial roof fan is also suitable for large kitchens, swimming pools and even in living areas. Vertical ventilation via a roof ventilator is even possible with a pipe run of several meters.


  • Among other things, ebm-papst also offers industrial fans, fans and circulation blowers for hot air
  • Rippert produces industrial fans with direct, V-belt or clutch drives. This includes the B5 and B3 series.
  • Rosenberg develops and produces fans and air conditioning units with a comprehensive range of products.
  • Funken is a fan manufacturer, with centrifugal fans made of flame-retardant polypropylene (PPs) or polyethylene (PEs / RAL 7036) and can be supplied as direct-driven (D) or belt-driven (R) fans.
  • Bartling offers high-performance centrifugal fans and transport fans.

Overview of manufacturers and suppliers of fans.

Category "Fans: Technical data, types, manufacturers"