Are clouds a heterogeneous mixture
There are substances that you can tell that they are not uniform and that they consist of several substances, e.g. granite or cloudy water. Such substances are called Mixtures of substances. The individual components of a mixture of substances are referred to as Basic substances.
Examples of basic substances
- All elements: oxygen, hydrogen, iron, coal, sulfur etc.
- Water (distilled)
- Table salt (high purity)
- etc. etc.
Examples of mixtures of substances
- granite consists of the pure substances feldspar, quartz and mica.
- Sedimentary rocks
- coffee: consists of water and dissolved coffee bean components
- black tea: Tannins, caffeine, flavorings (and much more) and water
- suncream: Fat, water and fragrances, active ingredients
- cloudy river water: Water, minerals and suspended particles (rock flour)
- Clouds: Water droplets in air
- vinegar: Acetic acid and water
- air: a gas mixture (78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, 0.04% carbon dioxide, other)
- Salt water: Water and salts
- Wood: Cellulose, lignin, resins (for conifers),
- etc. etc. etc.
One distinguishes heterogeneous and homogeneous Mixtures of substances.
Heterogeneous mixtures of substances (mixture visible)
Heterogeneous mixtures of substances can be seen as mixtures of substances with the naked eye.
|firm and firm|
solid in liquid
liquid in liquid
solid in gaseous form
liquid to gaseous
Homogeneous mixtures of substances (mixture not visible)
Homogeneous mixtures of substances cannot be distinguished with the naked eye.
|firmly with firmly|
liquid with liquid
gaseous with gaseous
firmly dissolved in liquid
gaseous dissolved in liquid
liquid dissolved in gaseous form
Heterogeneous mixtures of substances can in turn also be mixtures of homogeneous mixtures of substances. For example, cloudy seawater consists of a solution of salt in water in which insoluble components are suspended.
How do you recognize a basic substance?
Pure substances differ from substance mixtures in their melting and boiling behavior. To do this, the fabrics are heated. We observe the change in temperature observed over the course of heating.
Basic substances have a melting and boiling point
Notice: Basic substances have a melting and boiling point. As long as the substance melts or boils, its temperature remains constant (the curve is horizontal).
Mixtures of substances have a melting and boiling range
Notice: Mixtures of substances have a Melting and boiling range: Since there are different substances at the same time, the temperature rises constantly during melting or boiling. There is no melting or boiling point.
You can find more information on the separation of mixtures of substances here
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